Skip to main content

Table 3 Prevalence of daily cigarette smoking by gender and nationality

From: Cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use among an international sample of medical students. Cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary

  Daily cigarette smokers  
  Total Males Females Difference between gendersa
Total sample
n = 2883
220 (7.6) 115 (10.4) 105 (5.9) p < 0.001
German students
n = 1269
91 (7.2) 47 (9.5) 44 (5.7) p = 0.010
Hungarian students
n = 1042
78 (7.5) 38 (10.2) 40 (6.0) p = 0.013
Norwegian students
n = 145
0 (0.0)b 0 (0.0)c 0 (0.0)c n.a.
Multinational group
n = 427
51 (11.9) 30 (16.4) 21 (8.6) p = 0.014
Difference among nationalitiesa p < 0.001 p = 0.004 p = 0.028  
  1. Data expressed as n (%), aPearsons chi2-test, b,cZ-test with Bonferroni correction: bp < 0.05 versus German, Hungarian and multinational groups, cp < 0.05 versus multinational group, n.a. not analyzed