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Table 2 Prevalence of cigarette smoking by gender and nationality

From: Cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use among an international sample of medical students. Cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary

  Cigarette smokers  
  Total Males Females Difference between gendersa
Total sample
n = 2883
518 (18.0) 242 (22.0) 276 (15.5) p < 0.001
German students
n = 1269
211 (16.6) 100 (20.2) 111 (14.3) p = 0.006
Hungarian students
n = 1042
198 (19.0) 88 (23.7) 110 (16.4) p = 0.004
Norwegian students
n = 145
9 (6.2)b 3 (5.8)c 6 (6.5)d p = 0.870
Multinational group
n = 427
100 (23.4)e 51 (27.9) 49 (20.1) p = 0.060
Difference among nationalitiesa p < 0.001 p = 0.004 p = 0.012  
  1. Data expressed as n (%), aPearsons chi2-test, b,c,d,eZ-test with Bonferroni correction: bp < 0.05 versus German, Hungarian and multinational groups, cp < 0.05 versus Hungarian and multinational groups, dp < 0.05 versus multinational group, ep < 0.05 versus German and Norwegian groups