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Table 2 Working hours and sickness absence—Prospective cohort analysis

From: Long working hours and sickness absence—a fixed effects design

  Short sickness absence (1–8 days) Long sickness absence (9–183 days) Extra-long sickness absence (>  183 days)
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Long working hours (>  48 h per week) 0.40 (0.22–0.73) *** 0.62 (0.26–1.48) ns 0.40 (0.10–1.69) ns
Semi-long working hours (41–48 h per week) 0.56 (0.43–0.73) *** 0.83 (0.60–1.13) ns 0.90 (0.60–1.35) ns
Salary 1.00 (1.00–1.00) *** 1.00 (1.00–1.00) *** 1.00 (1.00–1.00) ns
Temporary contract 0.70 (0.57–0.86) *** 0.74 (0.60–0.92) *** 0.72 (0.55–0.94) *
Multiple job holder 0.94 (0.66–1.35) ns 0.96 (0.67–1.37) ns 0.89 (0.56–1.40) ns
Female 1.56 (1.35–1.81) *** 1.62 (1.39–1.88) *** 1.81 (1.48–2.20) ***
Age 0.98 (0.98–0.99) *** 1.00 (0.99–1.01) ns 0.99 (0.98–1.00) *
On-call shifts 0.95 (0.75–1.20) ns 0.84 (0.65–1.08) ns 0.85 (0.62–1.17) ns
Country of origin
Norwegian (Control)
Nordic immigrant 1.51 (1.03–2.23) * 0.77 (0.53–1.12) ns 0.76 (0.47–1.23) ns
Other Western immigrants 1.07 (0.69–1.68) ns 1.14 (0.73–1.80) ns 0.87 (0.46–1.65) ns
Non-Western immigrants 0.92 (0.58–1.44) ns 0.95 (0.61–1.48) ns 0.63 (0.33–1.23) ns
Job
Nurse (control)
Physician 0.97 (0.72–1.30) ns 1.21 (0.87–1.66) ns 1.03 (0.69–1.54) ns
Patient-oriented other 0.95 (0.76–1.18) ns 1.24 (1.04–1.49) * 1.24 (1.00–1.54) *
Administration/management 0.67 (0.55–0.82) *** 0.91 (0.76–1.10) ns 0.95 (0.76–1.20) ns
Other operations 0.66 (0.48–0.90) *** 1.39 (1.05–1.84) * 1.24 (0.87–1.77) ns
Kitchen/cleaning/orderly 1.35 (0.892.05) *** 1.36 (1.02–1.83) * 0.78 (0.52–1.18) ns
Other job 0.22 (0.16–0.30) ns 0.63 (0.44–0.90) ** 0.78 (0.51–1.18) ns
Cons 26.27   0.43   0.21  
Variance (random-part)   SE   SE   SE
Level 1: Employee π2/3   π2/3   π2/3  
Level 2: Work unit 0.29 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00
  1. Logistic regression. Random effects analyses; random intercept for work unit
  2. N employees: 5910; N departments: 986 (Full-time employees only)
  3. The random part of the table presents the estimated variance explained at each level
  4. * p > 0.05; ** p > 0.01; *** p > 0.001