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Table 5 Multiple logistic regression analysis showing the association between IPV (ever, last 12 months before pregnancy and during pregnancy) and maternal and new born health outcomes

From: Intimate partner violence, forced first sex and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Zimbabwean women accessing maternal and child health care

Association between types of lifetime IPV and maternal and new born health outcomes*
  History of a Miscarry/stillbirth History of a Neonatal death History of a miscarriage Ever had a neonatal death, miscarriage, and or stilbirth
  aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue) aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue) aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue) aOR 95% CI Sig (p-value)
Emotional IPV 1.39 1.08–1.77 0.008 1.34 1.03–1.72 0.024 1.29 0.95–1.74 0.098 1.32 1.02–1.69 0.03
Physical IPV 1.38 1.06–1.79 0.0001 1.17 1.16–2.20 0.015 1.49 1.12–1.98 0.006 1.56 1.22–1.97 0.0001
Sexual IPV 1.34 1.03–1.74 0.029 1.80 1.29–2.49 0.000 1.17 0.88–1.55 0.274 1.40 1.10–1.76 0.005
Sexual/Physical IPV 1.26 0.95–1.67 0.0513 2.05 1.40–2.98 0.000 1.18 0.87–1.58 0.287 1.43 1.11–1.84 0.005
Forced First Sex 1.23 0.85–1.77 0.266 1.22 0.80–1.84 0.351 1.47 1.03–2.09 0.032 1.45 1.06–1.98 0.018
Association between IPV in the last 12 months and entry into care and maternal and new born health outcomes**   
  Unplanned pregnancy   Late booking (ref. = early booking) Never booked (ref = early booking) Any negative outcome (LBW, premature, still baby) in recent pregnancy
  aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue) aOR 95% CI Sig (p-value) aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue) aOR 95% CI Sig (p-value)
Emotional IPV 1.48 1.22–1.79 0.0001 1.11 0.91–1.33 0.287 1.43 0.89–2.28 0.287 1.03 0.77–1.38 0.8
Physical IPV 1.50 1.19–1.87 0.0001 1.57 1.24.1.97 0.0001 1.18 0.66–2.09 0.565 0.99 0.70–1.39 0.962
Sexual IPV 1.32 1.08–1.60 0.006 1.10 0.90–1.32 0.358 2.09 1.31–3.34 0.002 0.95 0.7–1.26 0.709
Sexual/Physical IPV 1.32 1.09–1.60 0.004 1.27 1.05–1.52 0.012 2.13 1.32–3.42 0.002 0.95 0.71–1.25 0.711
Forced First Sex 2.02 1.54–2.63 0.0001 1.36 1.03–1.78 0.028 1.37 0.74–2.51 0.312 1.04 .70–1.54 0.842
Association between IPV during pregnancy and recent new born health outcomes***
  Recent Low birth weight   Any recent negative outcome (LBW, premature baby, c-section)       
  aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue) aOR 95% CI Sig (pvalue)       
Emotional IPV 1.79 1.26–2.52 0.001 1.38 1.03–1.83 0.026       
Physical IPV 1.23 0.78–1.91 0.362 1.09 0.74–1.59 0.673       
Sexual IPV 1.23 0.87–1.72 0.239 0.88 0.65–1.16 0.366       
Sexual/Physical IPV 1.22 0.87–1.70 0.246 0.89 0.67–1.17 0.406       
Forced First Sex 1.19 0.73–1.82 0.518          
  1. *Model adjusted for age, education, marital status and HIV status
  2. **Model adjusted for age, education, marital status, HIV status and history of smoking or alcohol use
  3. ***Model adjusted for age, education, marital status, HIV status and history of smoking, violence or alcohol use