Table 2 Generalized Estimating Equations Odds Ratios, (99% Confidence Intervals), and p-values for Between- and Within-Person Associationsa of Emotions with Food Choices

Emotion Food choice Between-person Within-person
OR (99% CI) p-value OR (99% CI) p-value
Negativeb Sweets 1.5 (0.9, 2.5) 0.037 1.3 (0.8, 1.9) 0.168
Salty snacks/fried foods 1.2 (0.6, 2.2) 0.552 1.0 (0.6, 1.5) 0.844
Fruits/vegetables 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.168 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 0.298
Pizza/fast food 1.2 (0.6, 2.2) 0.470 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.134
Sandwiches/wraps 1.0 (0.6, 1.7) 0.905 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 0.551
Meats/proteins 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 0.184 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 0.004
Pasta/rice 1.3 (0.8, 2.3) 0.164 1.4 (1.0, 2.1) 0.022
Cereals 1.6 (0.6, 4.1) 0.230 1.1 (0.6, 2.4) 0.627
Positiveb Sweets 1.5 (0.9, 2.4) 0.042 1.7 (1.1, 2.6) 0.002
Salty snacks/fried foods 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.383 1.5 (1.0, 2.2) 0.015
Fruits/vegetables 1.5 (1.0, 2.4) 0.012 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) 0.012
Pizza/fast food 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) 0.238 0.6 (0.4, 1.0) 0.007
Sandwiches/wraps 1.0 (0.7, 1.6) 0.817 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.130
Meats/proteins 1.8 (1.2, 2.8) <0.001 1.2 (0.8, 1.6) 0.222
Pasta/rice 1.6 (1.0, 2.5) 0.013 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.903
Cereals 2.0 (0.8, 4.8) 0.052 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) 0.890
Apatheticb Sweets 1.2 (0.6, 2.3) 0.398 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.151
Salty snacks/fried foods 2.0 (1.0, 3.9) 0.013 1.4 (0.9, 2.2) 0.076
Fruits/vegetables 0.7 (0.4, 1.4) 0.190 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.766
Pizza/fast food 2.0 (1.0, 4.1) 0.017 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.387
Sandwiches/wraps 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 0.862 0.7 (0.5, 1.2) 0.083
Meats/proteins 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 0.163 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.364
Pasta/rice 0.7 (0.4, 1.5) 0.274 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.182
Cereals 1.0 (0.3, 3.1) 0.967 1.6 (0.7, 3.7) 0.136
1. aAssociations were adjusted for sex, day of the week, time of day and within-person clustering of responses
2. bNegative emotions included sad, stressed, and tired; Positive emotions included happy, energized, and relaxed; Apathetic emotions included bored and meh
3. Boldface indicates statistical significance at p<0.01