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Table 2 Generalized Estimating Equations Odds Ratios, (99% Confidence Intervals), and p-values for Between- and Within-Person Associationsa of Emotions with Food Choices

From: The Association among Emotions and Food Choices in First-Year College Students Using mobile-Ecological Momentary Assessments

Emotion Food choice Between-person Within-person
OR (99% CI) p-value OR (99% CI) p-value
Negativeb Sweets 1.5 (0.9, 2.5) 0.037 1.3 (0.8, 1.9) 0.168
Salty snacks/fried foods 1.2 (0.6, 2.2) 0.552 1.0 (0.6, 1.5) 0.844
  Fruits/vegetables 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.168 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 0.298
  Pizza/fast food 1.2 (0.6, 2.2) 0.470 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.134
  Sandwiches/wraps 1.0 (0.6, 1.7) 0.905 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 0.551
  Meats/proteins 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 0.184 1.5 (1.0, 2.1) 0.004
  Pasta/rice 1.3 (0.8, 2.3) 0.164 1.4 (1.0, 2.1) 0.022
  Cereals 1.6 (0.6, 4.1) 0.230 1.1 (0.6, 2.4) 0.627
Positiveb Sweets 1.5 (0.9, 2.4) 0.042 1.7 (1.1, 2.6) 0.002
Salty snacks/fried foods 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.383 1.5 (1.0, 2.2) 0.015
  Fruits/vegetables 1.5 (1.0, 2.4) 0.012 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) 0.012
  Pizza/fast food 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) 0.238 0.6 (0.4, 1.0) 0.007
  Sandwiches/wraps 1.0 (0.7, 1.6) 0.817 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.130
  Meats/proteins 1.8 (1.2, 2.8) <0.001 1.2 (0.8, 1.6) 0.222
  Pasta/rice 1.6 (1.0, 2.5) 0.013 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.903
  Cereals 2.0 (0.8, 4.8) 0.052 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) 0.890
Apatheticb Sweets 1.2 (0.6, 2.3) 0.398 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.151
Salty snacks/fried foods 2.0 (1.0, 3.9) 0.013 1.4 (0.9, 2.2) 0.076
  Fruits/vegetables 0.7 (0.4, 1.4) 0.190 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.766
  Pizza/fast food 2.0 (1.0, 4.1) 0.017 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.387
  Sandwiches/wraps 1.0 (0.5, 1.8) 0.862 0.7 (0.5, 1.2) 0.083
  Meats/proteins 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 0.163 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.364
  Pasta/rice 0.7 (0.4, 1.5) 0.274 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.182
  Cereals 1.0 (0.3, 3.1) 0.967 1.6 (0.7, 3.7) 0.136
  1. aAssociations were adjusted for sex, day of the week, time of day and within-person clustering of responses
  2. bNegative emotions included sad, stressed, and tired; Positive emotions included happy, energized, and relaxed; Apathetic emotions included bored and meh
  3. Boldface indicates statistical significance at p<0.01