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Table 3 The awareness, understanding, and use of sodium labels among participants (%): univariate analysis

From: Awareness, understanding and use of sodium information labelled on pre-packaged food in Beijing:a cross-sectional study

Factors N Awareness a Understanding b Use c
Overall 688 19.5 52.3 12.6
Sex
 Male 215 15.8 47.9 8.4*
 Female 473 21.1 54.3 14.6
Age
 18–25 117 33.3** 42.7 9.4
 26–35 228 22.8 54.4 12.7
 36–45 116 20.7 55.2 14.7
 46–59 149 7.4 55.7 13.4
 ≥ 60 78 10.3 50.0 12.8
Source of participants
 Community 380 21.3 56.8** 16.8**
 Supermarket 308 17.2 46.8 7.5
Educational level
 Junior high school or below 128 5.5** 35.2** 6.3*
 High or technical school 177 12.4 39.0 11.9
 Junior college 112 20.5 59.8 20.5
 Undergraduate 205 27.8 63.9 13.2
 Graduate or above 66 37.9 72.7 12.1
Household monthly income per capita
 ≤ 5000 411 13.6** 47.0** 9.2*
 5001–10,000 181 28.2 62.4 17.7
 10,001–20,000 73 26.0 54.8 16.4
 ≥ 20,0001 23 34.8 60.9 21.7
BMI
 < 24 441 21.3 53.1 10.4
 24–27 194 15.5 51.0 17.0
 ≥ 28 53 18.9 50.9 15.1
Hypertension
 Yes 355 21.1 56.1* 14.1
 No 333 17.7 48.3 11.1
Cardiovascular Disease
 Yes 281 26.7** 59.1** 16.0*
 No 407 14.5 47.7 10.3
Chronic Kidney Disease
 Yes 85 29.4* 63.5* 18.8
 No 603 18.1 50.7 11.8
Awareness of recommended daily salt intake
 Yes 477 21.2 59.7** 14.3
 No 211 15.6 35.5 9.0
Score of attitude towards salt intake d
 Higher 304 22.7 57.9** 20.7**
 Lower 384 16.9 47.9 6.3
Salt reduction behavior e
 Yes 467 19.7 58.0** 15.4**
 No 221 19.0 40.3 6.8
  1. a Proportion of participants aware of sodium label on nutrition information panel
  2. b Proportion of participants who understood the relationship between sodium and salt
  3. c Proportion of participants who read or checked the sodium label most of time while shopping
  4. d The score of participants towards salt intake. “Higher” score was defined as above the average, and “Lower” score was defined as below the average
  5. e The behavior of usually controlling the salt intake in daily life
  6. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01, the chi-squared test was used to compare the differences among subgroups