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Table 4 Associations between subsistence difficulty level and smoking cessation readiness, confidence, and barriers among survey participants (N = 306)

From: Subsistence difficulties are associated with more barriers to quitting and worse abstinence outcomes among homeless smokers: evidence from two studies in Boston, Massachusetts

  Readiness score (0–10)a Confidence score (1–10)b Barriers score (0–24)c
Subsistence difficulty level Unadjusted mean (SD) Adjusted β (SE)d Unadjusted mean (SD) Adjusted β (SE)d Unadjusted mean (SD) Adjusted β (SE)d
None 6.3 (2.8) Ref. 6.6 (2.7) Ref. 9.9 (4.8) Ref.
Low 6.3 (2.7) −0.1 (0.4) 6.8 (2.6) 0.2 (0.4) 11.4 (4.6)* 1.3 (0.7)
High 6.3 (2.7) −0.1 (0.5) 6.7 (2.6) 0.6 (0.4) 13.7 (5.1)** 2.9 (0.7)**
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, SE standard error
  2. aBased on the Biener Contemplation Ladder. Higher scores indicate greater readiness
  3. bBased on a 10-point visual scale. Higher scores indicate greater confidence
  4. cBased on 12 items assessing barriers to quitting smoking (α = 0.78), with response options of 0 = not a barrier, 1 = small barrier, 2 = large barrier. Higher scores indicate greater barriers. See Methods for additional details
  5. dAdjusted effect estimates obtained from linear regression models controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, past-month work, past-month income, general health status, drug use severity, alcohol use severity, psychiatric symptom severity, and nicotine dependence. Regression models accounted for the survey sampling design
  6. *P < 0.05 for comparison to reference group (none)
  7. **P < 0.001 for comparison to reference group (none)