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Table 1 Results of logistic regression of household members’ net use by selected sociodemographic, ideational, and household variables in Madagascar, Mali, and Nigeria

From: Associations between ideational variables and bed net use in Madagascar, Mali, and Nigeria

Predictor Madagascar Mali Nigeria
Odds Ratio Betaa Odds Ratio Betaa Odds Ratio Betaa
Age group
 Under-5 (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 5–17 0.411*** − 0.192 0.332*** − 0.265 0.502*** −0.162
 Adult 0.934 −0.016 0.374*** −0.242 0.448*** −0.202
Gender
 Male (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 1.155 0.034 0.839‡ −0.044 1.044 0.011
Age group/Gender Interactions
 Under-5 X Male (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 5–17 X Female 0.978 − 0.004 1.459*** 0.073 1.084 0.015
 Adult X Female 1.282‡ 0.049 3.296*** 0.247 1.667*** 0.107
Household wealth quintile
 Lowest (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Second 0.971 −0.006 0.913 −0.019 0.960 −0.008
 Middle 0.849‡ −0.029 0.852* −0.031 0.962 −0.008
 Fourth 0.801** −0.041 0.711*** −0.065 0.950 −0.011
 Highest 0.989 −0.002 0.646*** −0.088 0.879‡ −0.026
Household sizeb    0.831*** −0.316   
Household sizeb
 2–4 (RC) 1.000     
 5–6 0.452*** −0.173     
 7–8 0.246*** −0.274     
 9 + 0.147*** −0.338     
Household sizeb
 2–4 (RC)      1.00 1.00
 5–6      0.529*** −0.150
 7–9      0.365*** −0.234
 10 +      0.207*** −0.313
Number of nets in householdc
 1–2 (RC)    1.00   
 3–4    2.722*** 0.240   
 5 or more    5.931*** 0.415   
Number of nets in householdc       
 1–2 (RC) 1.00     
 3 or more 2.793*** 0.218     
Number of nets in householdc
 0–1 (RC)      1.00
 2      0.893*** −0.028
 3 or more      0.646*** −0.100
Zone of residence
 Highlands (RC) 1.00     
 Sub-desert 3.595*** 0.278     
 Tropical 2.928*** 0.231     
 Equatorial 5.076*** 0.352     
Region of residence
 Koulikoro    1.00   
 Sikasso    1.787*** 0.130   
 Mopti    1.231*** 0.045   
 Bamako    0.952 −0.010   
State of residence
 Akwa Ibom (RC)      1.00
 Kebbi      1.487*** 0.098
 Nasarawa      1.099‡ 0.022
Caregiver’s education
 Primary or less (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Post-primary 0.925 −0.011 0.849** −0.032 0.957 −0.010
Caregiver’s religion
 Non-Christian (RC) 1.00    1.00
 Christian 0.888‡ −0.026    0.865* −0.037
Caregiver’s radio listening habits
 Fewer than once a week (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 At least once a week 0.911 −0.022 0.977 −0.006 1.024 0.006
Caregiver’s TV watching habits
 Fewer than once a week (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 At least once a week 1.348** 0.041 1.227*** 0.051 1.034 0.008
Caregiver’s exposure to messages on malaria
 No exposure (RC) 1.00 1.00   
 Low 0.975 −0.006 0.962 −0.009   
 High 1.447*** 0.073 0.899 −0.018   
Heard messages on malaria      0.960 −0.010
Caregiver’s perceived severity of malaria
 Lower (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Higher 0.971 −0.006 0.973 −0.007 0.885** −0.031
 Caregiver’s perceived susceptibility to malaria     
 Lower (RC) 1.00   1.00 1.00  
 Higher 0.998 −0.000 0.977 − 0.006 0.927‡ 0.019
Caregiver’s perceived self-efficacy to prevent malaria
 Lower (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Higher 1.567*** 0.061 1.068 0.016 1.034 0.008
Caregiver’s perceived self-efficacy to detect a serious case of malaria
 Lower (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Higher 1.162** 0.033 0.940 −0.014 0.986 −0.003
Caregiver’s perceived response-efficacy of nets
 Lower (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Higher 1.137 0.017 1.060 0.012 0.919* −0.021
Caregiver’s awareness that fever is a symptom of malaria
 Not aware (RC) 1.00 1.00   
 Aware 0.985 −0.003 1.155*** 0.035   
Caregiver’s awareness that mosquito is the cause of malaria
 Not aware (RC) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Aware 0.982 −0.003 1.365*** 0.048 0.933 −0.010
Caregiver’s perceived self-efficacy to purchase enough nets
 Lower (RC) 1.00 1.00   
 Higher 1.344*** 0.067 1.200*** 0.044   
Discussed malaria with friends/relations 1.057 0.013    0.996 −0.001
Participates in decisions about net allocation 1.343*** 0.061    0.998 −0.001
Attitudes towards nets
 Negative (RC) 1.00    1.00
 Positive 1.020 0.005    0.968 −0.008
Perceived net use as the norm among in community 1.391*** 0.069    1.024 0.006
Knows where to buy nets 1.284*** 0.058    1.023 0.005
Willing to pay for nets 1.015 0.003    1.045 0.011
Pseudo-R2 17.1% 9.9% 8.6%
Hosmer-Lemeshow GOFd (X2/ p) 15.3/0.08 15.5/0.08 14.9/0.09
Number of Observations 9260 19,345 15,463
  1. Notes: ‡ p < 0.1; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. aFully (XY) standardized beta coefficients
  3. bHousehold size was not normally distributed in Madagascar and Nigeria. The variable was differently categorized in the two countries in a way that helps to ensure model fit
  4. cNumber of nets was not normally distributed in any of the study countries. The variable was differently categorized in the three countries in a way that helps to ensure model fit
  5. dGOF Goodness of Fit