Skip to main content

Table 4 Maternal, perinatal, and neonatal mortality from the enhanced surveillance system in Tehsil Havelian compared to previous routinely collected data from Lady Health Workers only

From: Under-estimation of maternal and perinatal mortality revealed by an enhanced surveillance system: enumerating all births and deaths in Pakistan

Events Tehsil Havelian (study area) p-valueg Under-enumeration (%)
Routinely collected data (LHW only)a 2014-15f Enhanced Surveillance System
2015/16e
n Rate 95% CI n Rate 95% CI
Maternal Mortalityb 15 180 101 – 297 18 247 147 - 391 0.362 27
Neonatal Mortalityd 170 20 17 – 23 290 40 35 - 44 < 0.001 50
Early Neonatal Mortalityd 126 15 13 – 18 215 30 26 - 33 < 0.001 50
Perinatal Mortalityc 401 47 42 – 51 454 60 55 - 66 < 0.001 22
Stillbirthsc 275 32 28 – 36 239 32 28 - 36 0.953 0
Denominators (n)
 Total births 8599   7512    
 Live births 8324   7273    
  1. Bold: significant at p < 0.05. 95% CI: normal approximation of the binomial. Stillbirth: dead baby ≥28 weeks of pregnancy per total births; Abortions, dead fetus < 28 weeks of pregnancy; Early Neonatal Mortality, newborn death (0–6 days) per live births; Neonatal Mortality, newborn death (< 28) per live births; Perinatal Mortality: stillbirths plus early neonatal deaths per total births
  2. CI Confidence Interval
  3. aTehsil Havelian (study area), prior to enhanced surveillance system
  4. bper 105 live births (Poisson distribution used to calculate 95% confidence intervals)
  5. cper 103 total births (normal approximation of binomial counts used to calculate 95% CI)
  6. dper 103 live births
  7. e1 June 2015 to 31 May 2016
  8. f1 January 2014-31 May 2015
  9. gderived from chi-square