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Table 3 Maternal, perinatal, and neonatal mortality in Lady Health Workers’ (LHW) areas (only) from the enhanced surveillance system in Tehsil Havelian compared to prior routinely collected LHW data

From: Under-estimation of maternal and perinatal mortality revealed by an enhanced surveillance system: enumerating all births and deaths in Pakistan

Events Tehsil Havelian - LHWs areas only p-valueh Under-enumerationi (%)
Routine
LHW dataa
2014/15f 1.5 years (1 year)
LHW data: Enhanced Surveillance System
2015/16e 1 year
ng Rate 95% CI n Rate 95% CI
Maternal Mortalityb 15 180 101–297 14 226 124–379 0.541 20
(11) (188) (94–336)     0.647 17
Neonatal Mortalityd 170 20 17–23 247 40 35–45 < 0.001 50
(128) (22) (18–26)     (< 0.001) 45
Early Neonatal Mortalityd 126 15 13–18 184 30 25–34 < 0.001 50
(95) (16) (13–19)     (< 0.001) 46
Perinatal Mortalityc 401 47 42–51 366 57 52–64 0.003 18
(305) (50) (45–56)     (0.080) 12
Stillbirthsc 275 32 28–36 182 29 24–33 0.227 −10
(210) (35) (30–39)     (0.052) −19
Denominators (n)
 Total births 8599 (6062)   6375    
 Live births 8324 (5852)   6193    
  1. Bold: significant at p < 0.05. Italics: marginally significant. 95% CI: normal approximation of the binomial. Stillbirth: dead baby ≥28 weeks of pregnancy per total births; Abortions, dead fetus < 28 weeks of pregnancy; Early Neonatal Mortality, newborn death (0-6 days) per live births; Neonatal Mortality, newborn death (< 28 days) per live births; Perinatal Mortality: stillbirths plus early neonatal deaths per total births
  2. CI Confidence Interval
  3. aprior to enhanced surveillance system
  4. bper 105 live births. Poisson distribution used to calculate 95% confidence intervals
  5. cper 103 total births, normal approximation of binomial counts used to calculate 95% CI
  6. dper 103 live births
  7. e1 June 2015–31 May 2016
  8. f1 January 2014–31 May 2015
  9. gin brackets is 1 year data
  10. hderived from chi-square
  11. iby LHW data, negative under enumeration = over enumeration