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Table 2 Lifestyle and health-related risk factors and psychosocial measures of 380 adults 30–75 y/o in Puerto Rico

From: Health conditions and lifestyle risk factors of adults living in Puerto Rico: a cross-sectional study

  All Men Women p-value
Abdominal obesity U.S. cutoff, %a 61.3 33.0 76.2 < 0.0001
Abdominal obesity IDF cutoff, %a 75.6 55.1 86.4 < 0.0001
High waist-to-hip ratio, %a 76.8 77.6 76.4 0.81
BMI, %b
 Underweight 11.1 14.6 9.2 < 0.0001
 Recommended weight 46.7 63.4 38.1  
 Overweight 21.8 14.6 25.5  
 Obesity 20.4 7.3 27.2  
Physical activity, %c
 Sedentary 43.5 40.0 42.2 0.10
 Light 30.7 26.7 32.7  
 Moderate/Vigorous 25.9 33.3 22.1  
Habitual relaxation exercises, % 7.8 9.8 6.8 0.47
Sleep, hours/day 7.0 (1.7) 6.9 (1.6) 7.0 (1.7) 0.51
 Less than 7 h/day 37.7 39.4 36.8 0.20
 7–8 h/day 50.7 53.3 49.4  
 More than 8 h/day 11.6 7.4 13.9  
Sleep difficulties, %
 Always 22.0 26.2 20.0 0.31
 Occasionally 28.7 25.4 30.5  
 Rarely 49.3 48.4 49.8  
TV watching, hours/day 3.7 (2.7) 3.8 (3.0) 3.7 (2.6) 0.76
Time seated, hours/day 4.3 (3.2) 4.5 (3.8) 4.1 (2.9) 0.34
Smoking status, %
 Never smoker 66.4 54.8 72.4 0.002
 Former smoker 15.2 22.2 11.5  
 Current smoker 18.4 23.0 16.1  
Alcohol consumption, %
 Non-drinker 50.8 37.8 57.6 < 0.0001
 Former drinker 22.4 35.4 15.6  
 Current drinker 26.8 26.8 26.8  
Yearly influenza vaccination, % 25.7 25.6 25.7 0.59
Self-rated health, %
 Excellent/Very good 24.5 26.9 23.3 0.40
 Good 35.4 37.7 34.1  
 Fair/Poor 40.1 35.4 42.6  
Self-rated diet quality, %
 Excellent/Very good 30.6 28.2 31.9 0.31
 Good 33.8 35.1 33.1  
 Fair/Poor 35.6 36.6 35.1  
Source of health information, %
 Physician 79.2 80.9 78.3 0.55
 Health professional 62.0 63.1 61.5 0.77
 Newspapers/magazines 60.7 56.5 62.9 0.22
 TV/Radio 63.7 59.5 65.9 0.22
 Internet 55.2 46.6 59.7 0.01
 Friends/family 51.7 50.4 52.4 0.71
Trust this source, %
 Physician 91.7 93.1 91.0 0.48
 Health professional 77.9 79.4 77.1 0.62
 Newspapers/magazines 52.7 52.7 52.6 0.99
 TV/Radio 47.5 45.0 48.8 0.49
 Internet 46.7 39.2 50.6 0.04
 Friends/family 46.0 44.5 46.7 0.69
Perceived stress scored 21.7 (7.7) 21.5 (8.0) 21.8 (7.5) 0.71
Depressive symptoms scored 17.6 (12.6) 16.4 (11.9) 18.3 (12.9) 0.19
 % with depressive symptomse 52.6 51.3 53.2 0.74
Social support scored 24.7 (7.1) 24.0 (7.6) 25.0 (6.8) 0.19
 Appraisal 8.4 (2.8) 8.2 (2.9) 8.5 (2.7) 0.22
 Belonging 8.2 (2.8) 8.1 (2.9) 8.2 (2.7) 0.64
 Tangible 8.0 (2.6) 7.8 (2.7) 8.2 (2.5) 0.19
Diabetes emotional support scoref 14.1 (7.5) 14.5 (7.7) 13.9 (7.4) 0.71
  1. Shown as mean (standard deviation) or percent, as assessed from a cross-sectional convenience sample of 380 adults aged 30-75y recruited in 2015 from primary care clinics in the San Juan, Puerto Rico metropolitan area
  2. an = 316; Abdominal obesity defined as waist circumference ≥ 102 cm men or ≥ 88 cm women according to U.S. guidelines, or ≥ 94 cm men or ≥ 80 cm women according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. High waist-to-hip ratio defined as > 0.90 men; > 0.85 women
  3. bClassified from self-reported weight and height as underweight (15.0–18.4 kg/m2), recommended weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), or obesity (≥30.0 kg/m2)
  4. cSedentary physical activity defined as a score < 30, light activity as 30 to < 40, and moderate/vigorous activity as ≥40, as captured using a modified Paffenbarger questionnaire
  5. dFor all scores, higher values of the score are indicative of higher psychosocial marker. Possible ranges are 0–56 for perceives stress score, 0–60 for depressive symptoms (measured with Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale), 0–36 for social support (measured with12-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12)
  6. eDepressive symptomatology defined as a score ≥ 16 in the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale
  7. fDiabetes Social Support Questionnaire-Family asked only to those who reported diabetes diagnosis (n = 78). Possible range is 0–25; higher score indicates higher diabetes support