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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for all smokers in total and for regular and occasional smokers, stratified by age group

From: Responses to textual and pictorial cigarette pack health warnings: findings from an exploratory cross-sectional survey study in Austria

  M(SD) or n(%)
   15–23 years >23 years
  All smokers Regular Occasional Regular Occasional
N 460 55 47 276 82
Intention to quit smoking      
Not at all 123 (27.2) 13 (24.1) 8 (17.4) 83 (30.2) 19 (24.7)
Somewhat 166 (36.7) 20 (37.0) 16 (34.8) 103 (37.5) 27 (35.1)
Quite a lot 100 (22.1) 16 (29.6) 14 (30.4) 52 (18.9) 18 (23.4)
A lot 63 (13.9) 5 (9.3) 8 (17.4) 37 (13.5) 13 (16.9)
Change in feelings because of the new CPHWs      
No, feelings have not changed 381 (84.3) 48 (88.9) 33 (71.7) 239 (87.9) 61 (76.2)
Yes, I feel bad smoking 51 (11.3) 4 (7.4) 10 (21.7) 23 (8.5) 14 (17.5)
Yes, I feel very bad smoking 20 (4.4) 2 (3.7) 3 (6.5) 10 (3.7) 5 (6.2)
Forgoing cigarettes because of pictorial CPHWs      
No 417 (91.4) 46 (85.2) 40 (85.1) 264 (96.0) 67 (83.8)
Yes, I smoke a little less 32 (7.0) 7 (13.0) 5 (10.6) 10 (3.6) 10 (12.5)
Yes, I smoke much less 7 (1.5) 1 (1.9) 2 (4.3) 1 (0.4) 3 (3.8)
Frequency of reading warnings      
Never 182 (39.9) 20 (37.0) 17 (36.2) 114 (41.6) 31 (38.3)
Once 74 (16.2) 14 (25.9) 9 (19.1) 42 (15.3) 9 (11.1)
Repeatedly 103 (22.6) 8 (14.8) 14 (29.8) 60 (21.9) 21 (25.9)
Often 46 (10.1) 4 (7.4) 5 (10.6) 26 (9.5) 11 (13.6)
Almost always 51 (11.2) 8 (14.8) 2 (4.3) 32 (11.7) 9 (11.1)
Attitude toward pictorial warnings (good idea) 151 (34.4) 16 (30.2) 27 (64.3) 67 (25.4) 41 (51.2)
Warnings Impact Score (range: 0–4) 1.0 (1.1) 0.9 (0.9) 1.6 (1.2) 0.8 (1.0) 1.4 (1.1)
Assessment of the validity of warnings (range: 1–7) 4.6 (2.0) 4.1 (2.1) 5.0 (1.7) 4.6 (2.0) 4.8 (2.1)
Smoking risk assessment (range: 3–21) 12.7 (4.1) 12.8 (4.4) 12.9 (4.0) 12.5 (4.1) 13.0 (4.2)
Use of neutral covers (yes) 82 (18.3) 9 (17.0) 6 (13.0) 62 (23.0) 5 (6.2)
Cigarette dependence (FTCD; range: 0–10) 3.2 (2.4) 3.0 (2.0) 0.6 (0.8) 3.8 (2.3) 0.5 (0.8)
Number of years smoking      
≤3 years 69 (15.4) 20 (36.4) 30 (68.2) 10 (3.6) 9 (12.2)
4–10 years 91 (20.3) 35 (63.6) 13 (29.5) 29 (10.5) 14 (18.9)
>10 years 289 (64.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.3) 237 (85.9) 51 (68.9)
Household income      
≤2000 Euros 135 (37.3) 22 (52.4) 9 (24.3) 82 (37.8) 22 (33.3)
2001–3000 Euros 141 (39.0) 12 (28.6) 14 (37.8) 81 (37.3) 34 (51.5)
>3000 Euros 86 (23.8) 8 (19.0) 14 (37.8) 54 (24.9) 10 (15.2)
Educational level      
Still in school/compulsory education 54 (11.7) 12 (21.8) 11 (23.4) 25 (9.1) 6 (7.3)
Apprenticeship certificate/vocational school 210 (45.7) 19 (34.5) 12 (25.5) 153 (55.4) 26 (31.7)
High school diploma 130 (28.3) 23 (41.8) 22 (46.8) 58 (21.0) 27 (32.9)
University degree 66 (14.3) 1 (1.8) 2 (4.3) 40 (14.5) 23 (28.0)
Age (years) 37.4 (15.4) 20.1 (2.0) 20.5 (2.0) 44.0 (14.4) 36.5 (11.1)
Sex (female) 227 (49.3) 32 (58.2) 30 (63.8) 126 (45.7) 39 (47.6)
  1. This table includes data for current smokers but not for ex-smokers because most of these questions concern current smoking behaviour and current response to the CPHWs. The relevant questions were thus only addressed to smokers. We report the mean (M) and the standard deviation (SD) for continuous measures, and the absolute frequencies (n) and percentages (%) for categorical measures. FTCD, Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence