Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Gender differences in the risk of having higher occupational exposure levels by exposure-related variables

From: Gender differences in occupational exposure to carcinogens among Italian workers

Variable Description Total Males (ref.) Females M/F Ratio OR (95% CI) for medium levela OR (95% CI) for high levela
Agent/Group2 p value < 0.01)
79–06-1 Acrylamide 2447 2337 110 21.2 1.59 (1.00 to 2.51)† 0.29 (0.07 to 1.19)
107–13-1 Acrylonitrile 980 859 121 7.1 0.23 (0.03 to 1.68)
71–43-2 Benzene 20,161 19,459 702 27.7 0.56 (0.34 to 0.93)† 0.82 (0.53 to 1.28)
106–99-0 1,3-butadiene 2877 2756 121 22.8
75–01-4 Vinyl chloride monomer 992 708 284 2.5 1.62 (1.17 to 2.24)†
107–06-2 1,2-dichloroethane 745 666 79 8.4 0.79 (0.29 to 2.56)
50–00-0 Formaldehyde 1658 1446 212 6.8 0.94 (0.56 to 1.58) 2.52 (1.83 to 3.46)†
106–89-8 Epichlorohydrine 781 749 32 23.4
302–01-2 Hydrazine 796 786 10 78.6 0.41 (0.05 to 3.29)
75–21-8 Ethylene oxide 685 598 87 6.9 1.03 (0.49 to 2.17) 0.41 (0.10 to 1.76)
75–56-9 Propylene oxide 737 668 69 9.7 1.14 (0.39 to 3.33) 3.40 (1.29 to 8.94)†
79–01-6 Trichlorethylene 1086 1025 61 16.8 1.71 (0.65 to 4.49) 6.28 (3.33 to 11.9)†
25321-14-6 Dinitrotoluene (isomers mixture) 705 696 9 77.3
Hardwood dust 88,454 77,234 11,220 6.9 0.70 (0.66 to 0.74)† 0.84 (0.79 to 0.90)†
142844-00-6 Refractory ceramic fibers 436 397 39 10.2 0.09 (0.01 to 0.67)† 0.12 (0.03 to 0.49)†
Various Asbestos 7011 6988 23 303.8 1.96 (0.84 to 4.58)
Various Silica crystalline 1577 1547 30 51.6 0.76 (0.30 to 1.90) 0.06 (0.01 to 0.47)†
Various PAHs 13,378 13,076 302 43.3 0.07 (0.01 to 0.50)†
Various Chromium (VI) and compounds 12,143 11,115 1028 10.8 0.69 (0.43 to 1.11) 1.47 (1.17 to 1.83)†
Various Nickel and compounds 8280 7748 532 14.6 0.49 (0.29 to 0.85)† 1.56 (1.06 to 2.29)†
7440–43-9 Cadmium 688 666 22 30.3 6.78 (2.67 to 17.2)†
Occupational group2 p value < 0.01)
1&2 Managers and professionals 1338 1119 219 5.1 0.09 (0.01 to 0.65)† 0.40 (0.14 to 1.15)
3 Technicians and associate professionals 5328 4789 539 8.9 0.38 (0.25 to 0.59)† 0.92 (0.60 to 1.42)
4 Clerks 1418 1127 291 3.9 0.86 (0.56 to 1.32) 0.11 (0.04 to 0.30)†
5 Service and sales workers 5175 4766 409 11.7 0.68 (0.43 to 1.05) 0.49 (0.28 to 0.85)†
6 Craft and related trades workers 85,039 76,892 8147 9.4 0.89 (0.84 to 0.94)† 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)†
7 Plant, machine operators and assemblers 62,006 56,902 5104 11.1 1.12 (1.03 to 1.22)† 1.61 (1.45 to 1.79)†
8 Elementary occupations 6313 5929 384 15.4 1.72 (1.31 to 2.25)† 1.40 (1.03 to 1.91)†
Workforce size2 p value < 0.01)
a) 1 to 9 workers 23,039 21,320 1719 12.4 1.05 (0.93 to 1.18) 0.84 (0.72 to 0.99)†
b) 10 to 19 workers 23,681 21,953 1728 12.7 1.62 (1.44 to 1.81)† 1.45 (1.25 to 1.68)†
c) 20 to 49 workers 38,231 35,544 2687 13.2 0.99 (0.88 to 1.10) 1.02 (0.90 to 1.16)
d) 50 to 99 workers 21,757 19,725 2032 9.7 1.13 (1.00 to 1.28)† 1.98 (1.70 to 2.31)†
e) > = 100 workers 59,909 52,982 6927 7.6 0.80 (0.73 to 0.87)† 1.62 (1.48 to 1.78)†
Economic sectorb2 p value < 0.01)
20 Manufacture of wood and wood products 36,599 30,097 6502 4.6 0.80 (0.75 to 0.86)† 0.92 (0.85 to 1.01)
23 Manufacture of refined petroleum products 12,213 12,061 152 79.3 2.97 (0.71 to 12.4)
24 Manufacture of chemicals 12,585 12,036 549 21.9 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12) 1.20 (0.82 to 1.76)
25 Manufacture of rubber and plastic products 1486 986 500 2.0 0.27 (0.14 to 0.50)† 0.74 (0.56 to 0.98)†
26 Manufacture of other non-metallic products 1043 963 80 12.0 0.21 (0.08 to 0.52)† 1.05 (0.58 to 1.91)
28 Manufacture of fabricated metal products 10,320 9352 968 9.7 0.93 (0.70 to 1.24) 2.36 (1.92 to 2.89)†
29 Manufacture of machinery and equipment nec 5093 4567 526 8.7 0.15 (0.08 to 0.28)† 0.12 (0.05 to 0.30)†
34 Manufacture of motor vehicles 1425 1303 122 10.7 0.95 (0.49 to 1.82) 0.27 (0.10 to 0.74)†
35 Manufacture of other transport equipment 8536 8198 338 24.3 0.32 (0.23 to 0.44)† 0.17 (0.08 to 0.34)†
36 Manufacture of furniture; manufacturing nec 38,097 34,069 4028 8.5 0.61 (0.56 to 0.67)† 0.83 (0.75 to 0.92)†
45 Construction 13,720 13,685 35 391.0 2.68 (1.18 to 6.13)† 2.95 (1.02 to 8.57)†
50 Repair of motor vehicles; retail sale of fuel 2828 2608 220 11.9 1.01 (0.48 to 2.10) 0.45 (0.24 to 0.85)†
51 Wholesale trade and commission trade 1673 1591 82 19.4 0.10 (0.01 to 0.72)† 0.86 (0.42 to 1.76)
52 Retail trade, repair of household goods 2435 2325 110 21.1 0.86 (0.49 to 1.54)) 5.03 (2.70 to 9.35)†
74 Other business activities 1620 1534 86 17.8 0.27 (0.11 to 0.68)† 0.24 (0.06 to 0.98)†
90 Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation 4707 4609 98 47.0 0.08 (0.01 to 0.57)†
  Overall 166,617 151,524 15,093 10.0 0.96 (0.92 to 1.01) 1.20 (1.13 to 1.27)†
  1. aLow level is the reference group; †Significant at p = 0.05 level; OR: Odds ratios; 95%CI: 95% confidence interval; bonly main sectors are showed; nec: not elsewhere classified; Elementary occupations consist of simple and routine tasks which mainly require the use of hand-held tools