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Table 2 Operational description of community level variables included in the analyses

From: Community influences on modern contraceptive use among young women in low and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis

Community demographic factors
 Mean education attainment Computed as the mean number of education years among women aged 15–49
 Community household wealth index factor Computed from the household wealth index factor score as mean community.
 Mean HIV prevention knowledge Computed as a mean of a 7-item scale assessing HIV knowledge. Scale items include: one item on HIV awareness (ever heard of HIV/AIDS), three items about HIV risk reduction strategies (abstinence, consistent condom use, and having one with no other partners), and three items on HIV transmission (getting AIDS from mosquitoes, getting AIDS from sharing food with an infected person, and whether a healthy-looking person can have AIDS). Responses are measured on a 3-point scale (yes/ no/ don’t know). In these analyses, the option “don’t know” was recoded into “No”). A higher score indicates higher HIV knowledge.
 Community exposure to mass media score Computed as the mean score on three items assessing exposure to mass media: frequency of listening to radio, watching TV and reading newspapers. Responses are measured on a 3-point scale; a higher score indicates greater exposure to mass media.
Community fertility norms
 Mean age at marriage Mean age at marriage among all women aged 15–49
 Mean age at first birth Mean age at first birth among all women aged 15–49
 Mean age at sexual debut Mean age at first sex among all women aged 15–49
 Mean ideal family size Mean ideal number of children among all women aged 15–49
Community gender norms and inequity
 Mean household decision making autonomy Mean score on the household decision-making autonomy index in the community. Household decision-making was computed from a five-item scale assessing final say on respondents’ own health care, making large purchases, household purchases for daily needs, visits to family or relatives, and food cooked each day. A higher score indicates higher decision-making autonomy.
 Mean attitudes towards intimate partner violence Mean score on the violence justification index scale in the community. Violence justification was computed from a five-item scale with responses measured on a 5-point scale; a higher score indicates higher decision-making autonomy. Items include: going out without telling partner, neglecting the children, arguing with partner, refusing to have sex with the partner, and burning food.