Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusteda beta coefficients of educational attainment indicators for micronutrient deficiencies and anemia

From: Education and micronutrient deficiencies: an ecological study exploring interactions between women’s schooling and children’s micronutrient status

   Average years of school among women Percentage of no schooling among women
n Beta (SE) p value Model ra p value Beta (SE) p value Model ra p value
Outcome
 Anemia among children (2012)b 141 −2.3 (0.43) < 0.001 0.75 < 0.001 0.3 (0.05) < 0.001 0.77 < 0.001
 Anemia among non-pregnant women (2012) 141 −1.7 (0.35) < 0.001 0.46 < 0.001 0.3 (0.04) < 0.001 0.56 < 0.001
 VAD among children (2013) 93 −1.9 (0.75) 0.02 0.58 < 0.001 0.3 (0.08) 0.002 0.6 < 0.001
 Zinc deficiency in the population (2005) 139 −0.8 (0.37) 0.03 0.39 < 0.001 0.1 (0.04) 0.04 0.39 < 0.001
 Median UIE of the population (2012) 127 −3.0 (4.10) 0.47 0.03 0.24 1.4 (0.50) 0.004 0.09 0.008
 Percent of infants protected against iodine deficiency (2012) 94 −3.1 (1.58) 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.5 (0.17) 0.002 0.13 0.006
   Average years of school among men Percentage of no schooling among men
  n Beta (SE) p value Model rb p value Beta (SE) p value Model rb p value
Outcome
 Anemia among children (2012) 141 −2.1 (0.46) < 0.001 0.74 < 0.001 0.4 (0.07)c < 0.001 0.76 < 0.001
 Anemia among non-pregnant women (2012) 141 −1.2 (0.39) < 0.001 0.41 < 0.001 0.4 (0.04)c < 0.001 0.56 < 0.001
 VAD among children (2013) 93 −1.9 (0.86) 0.03 0.58 < 0.001 0.4 (0.10)c < 0.001 0.61 < 0.001
 Zinc deficiency in the population (2005) 139 −1.0 (0.40) 0.02 0.4 < 0.001 0.1 (0.05)c 0.01 0.4 < 0.001
 Median UIE of the population (2012) 127 −1.1 (4.34) 0.8 0.03 0.29 1.6 (0.66) 0.02 0.07 0.02
 Percent of infants protected against iodine deficiency (2012) 94 −1.6 (1.80) 0.39 0.04 0.31 0.5 (0.24) 0.04 0.07 0.07
  1. a All models adjusted for gross national income per capita
  2. b Year of outcome data
  3. c Significantly different from corresponding model with women’s educational attainment
  4. SE standard error, VAD vitamin A deficiency, UIE urinary iodine excretion