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Table 6 Unstandardized path coefficients for mediation model of affect towards e-cigarettes, risk perceptions, and e-cigarettes use (n = 5389)

From: Affect, risk perception, and the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes: a population study of U.S. adults

Direct paths Path coefficienta 95% CI p
Affect → E-cigarette use status (ref = Current e-cigarette user)
 Never user (vs. Current e-cigarette user) − 0.24 − 0.27 – − 0.21 < 0.001
 Former user (vs. Current e-cigarette user) − 0.17 − 0.20 – − 0.14 < 0.001
Affect → Risk Perceptions − 1.05 − 1.28 – − 0.83 < 0.001
Risk Perceptions → E-cigarette use status (ref = Current e-cigarette user)
 Never user (vs. Current e-cigarette user) 0.07 0.06 – 0.08 < 0.001
 Former user (vs. Current e-cigarette user) 0.03 0.02 – 0.04 < 0.001
Covariates → Affect
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)
  30–44 years old − 0.04 − 0.39 – 0.31 0.818
  45–59 years old − 0.27 − 0.62 – 0.07 0.119
  60+ years old 0.14 − 0.19 – 0.48 0.401
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)
  Black, non-Hispanic 0.00 − 0.45 – 0.45 0.994
  Hispanic, any race − 0.39 − 0.75 – − 0.02 0.036
  Other − 0.03 − 0.49 – 0.43 0.899
 Education (ref = <High School)
  High School − 0.18 − 0.62 – 0.25 0.408
  Some College − 0.57 − 1.02 – − 0.13 0.012
  Bachelor’s degree or higher − 0.84 − 1.28 – − 0.40 < 0.001
 Female − 0.26 − 0.50 – − 0.02 0.035
Covariates → Risk Perceptions
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)
  30–44 years old 1.98 0.71 – 3.25 0.002
  45–59 years old 3.39 2.09 – 4.70 < 0.001
  60+ years old 5.76 4.36 – 7.16 < 0.001
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)
  Black, non-Hispanic 0.86 − 0.91 – 2.63 0.339
  Hispanic, any race − 0.24 − 1.62 – 1.14 0.736
  Other 1.13 − 0.57 – 2.82 0.193
 Education (ref = <High School)
  High School − 0.03 − 1.66 – 1.60 0.969
  Some College 0.28 − 1.29 – 1.86 0.723
  Bachelor’s degree or higher 0.58 − 0.91 – 2.06 0.446
 Female 1.96 1.02 – 2.91 < 0.001
Covariates → Never user (ref = Current e-cigarette user)
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)
  30–44 years old 0.33 0.07 – 0.58 0.011
  45–59 years old 0.90 0.68 – 1.12 < 0.001
  60+ years old 1.86 1.61 – 2.11 < 0.001
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)
  Black, non-Hispanic 0.12 − 0.21 – 0.44 0.476
  Hispanic, any race − 0.48 − 0.71 – − 0.24 < 0.001
  Other − 0.29 − 0.66 – 0.08 0.124
 Education (ref = <High School)
  High School 0.31 0.04 – 0.57 0.023
  Some College 0.48 0.21 – 0.75 < 0.001
  Bachelor’s degree or higher 1.15 0.84 – 1.47 < 0.001
 Female − 0.05 − 0.23 – 0.13 0.589
Covariates Former user (ref = Current e-cigarette user)
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)
  30–44 years old 0.14 − 0.14 – 0.42 0.338
  45–59 years old 0.20 − 0.04 – 0.45 0.107
  60+ years old 0.45 0.16 – 0.74 0.002
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)
  Black, non-Hispanic 0.26 − 0.07 – 0.59 0.119
  Hispanic, any race − 0.18 − 0.46 – 0.10 0.200
  Other − 0.29 − 0.72 – 0.14 0.182
 Education (ref = <High School)
  High School − 0.01 − 0.30 – 0.28 0.966
  Some College 0.31 0.01 – 0.62 0.045
  Bachelor’s degree or higher 0.39 0.05 – 0.74 0.027
 Female 0.08 − 0.12 – 0.28 0.432
Factor Loadings
 Risk Perceptions
  Lung Cancer 0.99 0.99 – 0.99 < 0.001
  Lung Disease (e.g., COPD) 0.99 0.98 – 0.99 < 0.001
  Heart Disease 0.97 0.97 – 0.98 < 0.001
  Early/Premature Death 0.96 0.96 – 0.97 < 0.001
 Affect
  First Image Rating 0.87 0.85 – 0.88 < 0.001
  Second Image Rating 1.00 1.00 – 1.00 < 0.001
  1. Ref = referent group or category. denotes an estimated model path (for example, “Affect E-cigarette use status” signifies the path for the regression of e-cigarette use status on affect). aCoeffients are either multinomial logistic coefficients (unstandardized; akin to logistic regression coefficients) if e-cigarette use status is the outcome variable (i.e., “E-cigarette use status”, “Former user”, or “ Never user”), standardized factor loadings or residual correlations for the measurement model paths, or are linear coefficients (akin to regression coefficients) otherwise (i.e., “Affect” or “ Risk Perceptions”)