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Table 2 Demographic baseline data

From: Appropriateness of bone density measurement in Switzerland: a cross-sectional study

Covariates Total No DXA Any DXA p-Value Test
n 552,973 542,973 (98.2%) 10,000 (1.8%)   
Age 60.0 (22.0) 60.0 (21.0) 66.0 (16.0) <  2.2e-16 ***
Female sex 292,377 (52.9%) 283,493 (52.2%) 8884 (88.8%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Managed care 249,826 (45.2%) 245,628 (45.2%) 4198 (42.0%) 8.52e-11
***
Deductible ≥ CHF 1000 143,295 (25.9%) 142,212 (26.2%) 1083 (10.8%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Supplementary hospital insurance 127,080 (23.0%) 123,689 (22.8%) 3391 (33.9%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Region     <  2.2e-16 *** ““
 Midland 110,347 (20.0%) 108,473 (20.0%) 1874 (18.7%)   
 Northwest 76,568 (13.8%) 75,141 (13.8%) 1427 (14.3%)   
 East 78,285 (14.2%) 76,914 (14.2%) 1371 (13.7%)   
 Lake Geneva 70,177 (12.7%) 68,800 (12.7%) 1377 (13.8%)   
 Ticino 40,729 (7.4%) 39,915 (7.4%) 814 (8.1%)   
 Central 48,871 (8.8%) 48,225 (8.9%) 646 (6.5%)   
 Zurich 127,996 (23.1%) 125,505 (23.1%) 2491 (24.9%)   
 Urban area 424,875 (76.8%) 416,774 (76.8%) 8101 (81.0%) <  2.2e-16
***
Density DXA facilities     3.18e-13 *** ““
 1. quartile 146,876 (26.6%) 144,549 (26.6%) 2327 (23.3%)   
 2. quartile 158,878 (28.7%) 155,932 (28.7%) 2946 (29.5%)   
 3. quartile 156,620 (28.3%) 153,514 (28.3%) 3106 (31.1%)   
 4. quartile 90,599 (16.4%) 88,978 (16.4%) 1621 (16.2%)   
Purchasing power     3.39e-07 *** ““
 middle 498,052 (90.1%) 489,136 (90.1%) 8916 (89.2%)   
 lowest 28,221 (5.1%) 27,744 (5.1%) 477 (4.8%)   
 highest 26,700 (4.8%) 26,093 (4.8%) 607 (6.1%)   
Use of antidepressive drugs 59,602 (10.8%) 57,984 (10.7%) 1618 (16.2%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor: History of fracture 1874 (0.3%) 1673 (0.3%) 201 (2.0%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor: Osteogenesis imperfecta 1 (0.0%) 1 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1
Risk factor: Hypogonadism 3562 (0.6%) 2989 (0.6%) 573 (5.7%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor (SVGO): Hyperparathyroidism 341 (0.1%) 317 (0.1%) 24 (0.2%) 2.53e-08 ***
Risk factor: Hyperthyroidism 1171 (0.2%) 1136 (0.2%) 35 (0.4%) 0.005611 **
Risk factor (SVGO): Hypothyroidism 25,595 (4.6%) 24,621 (4.5%) 974 (9.7%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor: Malnutrition 2270 (0.4%) 2207 (0.4%) 63 (0.6%) 0.001148 **
Risk factor: Steroid therapy 45,443 (8.2%) 43,206 (8.0%) 2237 (22.4%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor: Inflammatory bowel disease 4291 (0.8%) 3990 (0.7%) 301 (3.0%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor: Rheumatoid arthritis 4900 (0.9%) 4401 (0.8%) 499 (5.0%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Risk factor: Insulin dependent diabetes 11,399 (2.1%) 11,210 (2.1%) 189 (1.9%) 0.241
Risk factor: Chronic liver disease 507 (0.1%) 489 (0.1%) 18 (0.2%) 0.006869 **
Risk factor: Nicotine abuse 893 (0.2%) 871 (0.2%) 22 (0.2%) 0.1641
Risk factor: Alcohol abuse 1435 (0.3%) 1400 (0.3%) 35 (0.4%) 0.07417
Risk factor (SVGO): Emerging risk factors 38,633 (7.0%) 37,539 (6.9%) 1094 (10.9%) <  2.2e-16 ***
Number of chronic conditions 1.0 (3.0) 1.0 (3.0) 2.0 (3.0) <  2.2e-16 ***
  1. Number and proportion of covariates of patients with any DXA screening and with no DXA screening respectively. Abbreviations: “Total” = all included patients, “Any DXA” = all patients who received any DXA screening, “No DXA” = all patients receiving no DXA screening. Significance levels are marked accordingly: *** ≤ 0.001, ** = 0.001–0.01, * = 0.01–0.05, empty = 0.05–1. ‘= Kruskal-Wallis test, “= Fisher exact test, ““= Chi-Square test