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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of job retention and loss groups in 2008

From: Patterns in quality of life according to employment among the older adults: the Korean longitudinal study of aging (2008–2014)

Variables Category Men (N = 383) Women (N = 143)
   Retention (N = 204)
N (%) or Mean±SD
Loss (N = 179)
N (%) or Mean±SD
Differences
t or χ2 (p)
Retention (N = 63)
N (%) or Mean±SD
Loss (N = 80)
(N = 80) N (%) or Mean±SD
Differences
t or χ2 (p)
Demographic characteristics
 Age   70.05 ± 4.11 70.40 ± 4.60 −0.77 (.442) 69.30 ± 3.23 70.83 ± 4.31 − 2.41 (.017)
 Education Elementary school 113 (55.4) 88 (49.2) 1.73 (.629) 59 (93.7) 76 (95.0) 4.18 (.243)
Middle school 30 (14.7) 31 (17.3)   0 (0.0) 2 (2.5)  
High school 47 (23.0) 44 (24.6)   2 (3.2) 0 (0.0)  
College or higher 14 (6.9) 16 (8.9)   2 (3.2) 2 (2.5)  
 Total household income (10,000 won) 1817.65 ± 1715.84 1704.94 ± 1455.17 0.69 (.492) 1217.56 ± 1228.36 1116.11 ± 1025.45 0.54 (.591)
 Residence Large city 40 (19.6) 65 (36.3) 26.04 (<.001) 16 (25.4) 30 (37.5) 4.35 (.114)
Small city 42 (20.6) 53 (29.6)   10 (15.9) 17 (21.3)  
Rural area 122 (59.8) 61 (34.1)   37 (58.7) 33 (41.3)  
Health status and behavior
 Subjective health status Bad 39 (19.1) 32 (17.9) 0.13 (.937) 18 (28.6) 29 (36.3) 1.66 (.436)
Moderate 96 (47.1) 87 (48.6)   30 (40.7) 38 (47.5)  
Good 69 (33.8) 60 (33.5)   15 (23.8) 13 (16.3)  
 Number of chronic diseases 0.64 ± 0.84 0.77 ± 0.91 −1.38 (.169) 0.78 ± 0.89 1.11 ± 0.94 −2.16 (.032)
 Body grip strength index (kg) 28.89 ± 5.35 29.41 ± 5.70 −0.90 (.363) 19.00 ± 4.01 18.13 ± 3.82 1.28 (.202)
 Depression score 3.19 ± 2.70 3.31 ± 2.80 −0.43 (.379) 4.02 ± 2.80 5.31 ± 2.46 −2.91 (.004)
 Regular exercise (Yes) 41 (20.1) 63 (35.2) 10.99 (.001) 6 (9.5) 10 (12.5) 0.31 (.575)
 Current smoking (Yes) 76 (37.3) 66 (36.9) 0.01 (.938) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.5) 1.60 (.206)
 Current drinking (Yes) 123 (60.3) 110 (61.5) 0.05 (.817) 9 (14.3) 11 (13.8) 0.01 (.927)
Social support system/Interaction
 Live alone (Yes) 5 (2.5) 12 (6.7) 4.07 (.044) 31 (49.2) 32 (40.0) 1.21 (.271)
 Existence of spouse (Yes) 193 (94.6) 165 (92.2) 0.92 (.337) 20 (31.7) 34 (42.5) 1.73 (.188)
 Number of meetings with friends No meetings 2 (1.0) 6 (3.4) 3.79 (.285) 3 (4.8) 2 (2.5) 0.64 (.886)
1–6 times a year 9 (4.4) 10 (5.6)   3 (4.8) 3 (3.8)  
1–4 times a month 108 (52.9) 99 (55.3)   28 (44.4) 37 (46.3)  
Almost daily 85 (41.7) 64 (35.8)   29 (46.0) 38 (47.5)  
 Participation in regular meetings (Yes) 169 (82.8) 131 (73.2) 5.24 (.022) 39 (61.9) 48 (60.0) 0.05 (.817)
 Number of leisure activities   1.12 ± 2.04 1.09 ± 2.82 0.11 (.912) 0.52 ± 0.95 1.03 ± 1.90 −2.06 (.042)
 Time spent on self-development   0.39 ± 2.25 0.50 ± 3.26 −0.37 (.711) 0.00 ± 0.00 0.94 ± 4.04 −2.08 (.041)
  1. (N = 526)