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Table 1 Final GRF-OT Scale Items

From: Development of the great recess framework – observational tool to measure contextual and behavioral components of elementary school recess

Score 1 2 3 4
Safety and Structure 1 The play space for recess is unsafe due to hazards not identified as “no play” zones. There are significant safety concerns in almost all of the play spaces The play space for recess has safety concerns due to hazardous areas on the majority of the playground not identified as “no play” zones The play space for recess has some safety concerns. There are a few hazardous areas not identified as “no play” zones The play space for recess has no safety concerns. It is clearly free of hazards and/or all unsafe areas are identified as “no play” zones
Safety and Structure 2 The play space for recess has no clearly identified boundaries for games (no cones, chalk, paint) The play space for recess has a few boundaries identified but a large percentage of the play space does not have any game space marked The play space for recess has many boundaries identified but a small portion of the play space does not have any game space marked The play space for recess is well marked (cones, chalk, paint) and all game boundaries are clear
Safety and Structure 3 No fixed or unfixed recess equipment is available Only fixed recess equipment is available OR only non-fixed recess equipment is available Fixed recess equipment is available and there are limited amounts of non-fixed equipment Fixed and non-fixed recess equipment is available to support multiple games and activities
Safety and Structure 4 Hardly any organized games and/or activities are available during recess A limited number of organized games and/or activities are available during recess but there is limited variety A limited number of organized games and/or activities are available during recess, but there is variety A variety of organized games and/or activities are available during recess
Safety and Structure 5 Hardly any of the equipment provided is being used as intended and in a safe manner Some of the equipment provided is being used appropriately but there are many instances of inappropriate use Most of the equipment provided is being used appropriately but there are a few instances of inappropriate use Almost all of the equipment provided is being used as intended and in a safe manner
Adult Engagement and Supervision 1 The adult to student ratio is more than 75:1 The adult to student ratio is between 51 and 74:1 The adult to student ratio is approximately 35–50:1 The adult to student ratio is less than 35:1
Adult Engagement and Supervision 2 Hardly any adults model positive culture (e.g. positive language, getting students involved, supporting conflict resolution skills, etc.) A few adults model positive culture (e.g. positive language, getting students involved, supporting conflict resolution skills, etc.) Many adults model positive culture (e.g. positive language, getting students involved, supporting conflict resolution skills, etc.) Almost all adults model positive culture (e.g. positive language, getting students involved, supporting conflict resolution skills, etc.)
Adult Engagement and Supervision 3 Hardly any of the supervising adults are strategically positioned to view students in the recess play space (i.e., adults are all huddled together) Some of the supervising adults are strategically positioned to view students in the recess play space, but many students are unsupervised Many of the supervising adults are strategically positioned to view students in the recess play space, but some students are unsupervised Almost all of the supervising adults are strategically positioned to view students in the recess play space
Adult Engagement and Supervision 4 Hardly any adults are playing games or engaged with students A few adults are playing games and/or are engaged with students Some adults are playing games and/or are engaged with students Almost all adults are playing games and engaged with students
Student Behaviors 1 Hardly any games are initiated by students A few games are initiated by students Some games are initiated by students Almost all games are initiated by students
Student Behaviors 2 There were several physical altercations between students There were some physical altercations between students There were few physical altercations between students There were no physical altercations between students
Student Behaviors 3 Hardly any communication (verbal or nonverbal) between students is positive and encouraging towards each other Very little communication (verbal or nonverbal) between students is positive and encouraging towards each other Most of the communication (verbal or nonverbal) between students is positive and is encouraging towards each other Almost all of communication (verbal or nonverbal) between students is positive and encouraging towards each other
Student Behaviors 4 There were several disagreements about rules between students that were disruptive to play There were some disagreements about rules between students that were disruptive to play There were few disagreements about rules between students that were disruptive to play There were no disagreements about rules between students that were disruptive to play
Student Behaviors 5 Students demonstrate hardly any strategies for resolving conflicts on their own Students demonstrate a few strategies for resolving conflicts on their own, but a lot of adult support was needed Students demonstrate adequate strategies for resolving conflicts on their own, but some adult support was needed Students demonstrate strategies to resolve their conflict without adult intervention or there was no evident conflict on the playground
Transitions 1 Hardly any transitions to recess from classroom are organized and smooth Few transitions to recess from classroom are organized and smooth Most transitions to recess from classroom are organized and smooth All transitions to recess from classroom are organized and smooth
Transitions 2 Hardly any transitions to the classroom from recess are organized and smooth Some transitions to the classroom from recess are organized and smooth Most transitions to the classroom from recess are organized and smooth All transitions to the classroom from recess are organized and smooth
Physical Activity Hardly any students are involved in physically active play Few students are involved in physically active play Some students are involved in physically active play Almost all students are involved in physically active play