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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis (final model) showing objective and subjective health system related factors evaluated for association with satisfaction with ANC, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, northern Nigeria, N = 1336

From: Antenatal care satisfaction in a developing country: a cross-sectional study from Nigeria

Independent variables Adjusted Odds Ratioa p value
Patient Socio-demography
Age (years) 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.49
First Pregnancy
 Yes 1.11 (0.64–1.94) 0.71
 No (ref) 1.00  
First ANC visit in facility for the pregnancy
 Yes 0.78 (0.45–1.36) 0.39
 No (ref) 1.00  
Marital status
 Married/living-together 2.34 (.078–7.03) 0.13
 Others (ref) 1.00  
Education
 Secondary or higher 0.96 (0.48–1.91) 0.91
 Less than secondary (ref) 1.00  
Wealth quartile
 Poor 1.35 (0.68–2.66) 0.39
 Lower-middle 1.67 (0.85–3.26) 0.13
 Upper-middle (ref) 1.00  
 Rich 1.29 (0.66–2.54) 0.45
Access to Care
Out-of-pocket expenditure (Patient reported)
 Free care (ref) 1.00 0.01
 Paid care 0.44 (0.23–0.82)  
Distance travelled in km (Patient reported)
  < 3 1.84 (0.42–8.16) 0.42
  ≥ 3 (ref) 1.00  
Patient Care Experience (Subjective perception)
Non-discriminatory treatment regardless of socioeconomic status
 Yes 1.87 (1.09–3.22) 0.02
 No (ref) 1.00  
Empathic providers
 Yes 1.82 (1.03–3.23) 0.01
 No (ref) 1.00  
Assuranceb 1.48 (1.26–1.75) 0.00
Responsivenessc 2.42 (2.05–2.87) 0.00
Treatment-facilitationd 2.03 (1.46–2.80) 0.00
Clinical examinations receivede 1.28 (1.10–1.50) 0.00
Preventive medications receivedf 0.67 (0.48–0.95) 0.02
Facility Level Variable (Objectively measured by surveyors)
Availability of general-care equipmentg 1.10 (1.01–1.21) 0.00
Facility cleanliness and amenities 0.96 (0.87–1.07) 0.50
Availability of employed clinical staff on day of surveyh 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.31
  1. ANC Antenatal Care
  2. aAdjusted for socio-demographic factors. None of the socio-demographic factors were significant. Significant at 0.05 level
  3. bAssurance: Provider courtesy and accessibility, and trust in provider’s skill and treatment decisions
  4. c Responsiveness: Less wait time, adequate consultation time, respect for privacy, and clinic hours
  5. d Treatment-facilitation: Effective provider communication regarding maternal and fetal health condition and treatment, and ease of access to prescribed drugs
  6. eClinical examinations received: count of weight, height, blood pressure, uterine height, urine test, blood test, and abdominal examination received
  7. fProphylactic treatment: count of items received - iron/folic acid supplement, antimalarials, and tetanus toxoid
  8. gAvailability of general-care equipment: count of essential equipment available
  9. hClinical staff: Doctors, nurses, midwives, auxiliary nurse, pharmacists, laboratory technologists, technicians, community health officers, community health extension workers