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Table 3 ANC patients’ sociodemographic distribution and reported care experience by satisfaction with care, Northern Nigeria. N = 1,336a

From: Antenatal care satisfaction in a developing country: a cross-sectional study from Nigeria

  Total
n(%)
Satisfied
n(%)
Not satisfied n(%) p-value
Total Respondents 1336 (100) 1204 (90) 132 (10)  
Sociodemographic and Maternal Factors
Age (years) 24.7 (6) 24.6 (6) 25.6 (6) 0.97
Marital status
 Married/living-together 1286 (96) 1161 (90) 125 (10) 0.32
 Others 50 (4) 43 (86) 7 (14)  
Education
 Less than secondary 1135 (85) 1024 (90) 111 (10) 0.77
 Secondary or higher 201 (15) 180 (90) 21 (10)  
Wealth quartile
 Poor 333 (25) 300 (90) 33 (10) 0.24
 Lower-middle 335 (25) 306 (91) 29 (9)  
 Upper-middle 333 (25) 291 (87) 42 (13)  
 Rich 335 (25) 307 (92) 28 (8)  
Gravida statusb
 Primigravida 494 (37) 447 (91) 47 (9) 0.73
 Multigravida 842 (63) 757 (90) 85 (10)  
Previous ANC in visited facility
 Yes 975 (73) 884 (91) 91 (9) 0.27
 No 361 (27) 320 (89) 41 (11)  
Healthcare Access Factors
Distance travelled (km)
  < 3 1223 (92) 1099 (90) 124 (10) 0.30
  ≥ 3 113 (9) 105 (93) 8 (7)  
Out-of-pocket expenditure (Naira)
 Free (no payment) 392 (29) 354 (90) 38 (10) 0.88
 100–1000 832 (62) 747 (90) 85 (10)  
  > 1000 112 (8) 103 (92) 9 (8)  
Patient Care Experience
 Assurance (mean, SD)c 11.4 (1.20) 11.5 (1.06) 10.0 (1.80) 0.00
 Responsiveness (mean, SD)d 7.2 (1.30) 7.5 (1.00) 5.2 (1.60) 0.00
 Treatment-facilitation (mean, SD)e 3.7 (0.70) 3.8 (0.60) 3.12 (1.10) 0.00
 Clinical examinations received (mean, SD)f 4.64 (1.71) 4.72 (1.70) 3.94 (1.59) 0.00
 Maternal and child health counselling items (mean, SD)g 3.16 (1.90) 3.25 (1.89) 2.37 (1.73) 0.00
 Preventive medications received (mean, SD)h 1.93 (0.91) 1.92 (0.91) 2.05 (0.92) 0.95
 Non-discriminatory treatment regardless of socioeconomic status
 Yes 853 (64) 792 (93) 61 (7) 0.00
 No 483 (36) 412 (85) 71 (15)  
Empathic providers
 Yes 933 (70) 883 (95) 50 (5) 0.00
 No 403 (30) 321 (80) 82 (20)  
  1. ANC Antenatal Care
  2. aDifferences in the distributions of satisfactory and non-satisfactory ANC are significant at p < 0.05
  3. bGravida status: Primigravida-first pregnancy, Multigravida-second or higher
  4. cAssurance: Provider courtesy and accessibility, and trust in provider’s skill and treatment decisions
  5. dResponsiveness: Wait time, unrushed consultation, privacy during care, and clinic service hours
  6. eTreatment-facilitation: Effective provider communication regarding maternal and neonatal health condition and treatment, and ease of access to prescribed drugs
  7. fClinical examination score: Measurement of weight, height, blood pressure, uterine height, urine test, blood test, and abdominal examination
  8. gMaternal and child health counselling score: Counselling on diet, danger signs during pregnancy, family planning, breast feeding, HIV and delivery care plan
  9. hPreventive medications score: Receipt of iron/folic acid supplement, antimalarial, and tetanus toxoid