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Table 3 Categories for statistical analyses

From: Why are some groups physically active and others not? A contrast group analysis in leisure settings

Target Variable Type Description
Physical activity level of group Rating scale 1) ‘Very active’ (high intensity activities, such as fast swimming of lanes, playing football/soccer, beach volleyball, ballgames, wild playful running and playing tag games),
2) ‘Moderately active’ (low to moderate intensity activities, such moderate/slow swimming of lanes, water games, playful swimming or diving activities with prolonged breaks, relaxed playing of table-tennis)
3) ‘Rather passive, sometimes in the water’ (sitting around or sunbathing with episodes of standing in the water or being active for short periods of time)
4) ‘Extremely passive’ (lying, sunbathing, sitting in circles on lawn/around pool/shore/on trucks with no active episodes)
Independent Variable Type Description
Gender-related group composition Nominal Male only, female only, mixed
Observational setting Nominal Hawai’i Champagne Pond, Germany Entringen Pool
Age categories Nominal Children (0–12 years), adolescents (13–17 years), young adulthood (18–34 years), middle adulthood (35–60 years), seniors (>  60 years)
Age -related group composition (Specific) Nominal Adults only, mixed, children only, adolescents only
Age-related group composition (Homogeneous/ heterogeneous) Nominal Homogeneous age group (categories see above), mixed-aged group (combinations of different categories)
Body shape categories Nominal 1) Obese (clearly obese with a BMI over 30)
2) Normal weight (lean/normal weight/slightly overweight with a BMI between 18 and 29)
3) Athletic (BMI over 25, but very muscular with low body fat)
Body shape-related group composition Nominal 1) Mainly (at least 80%) athletic
2) Mainly (at least 80%) normal weight
3) Mixed (combination of normal weight/athletic with obese)
4) Mainly (at least 80%) obese
Group size Ratio Total number of individuals in one observed group (for general statistics)
Group size categories Ordinal 1) Two or three members
2) Four or five members
3) Six or seven members or more
Additional equipment Nominal Did a group have equipment such as chairs, sun loungers, barbeques, cooling boxes, sunshades, etc. or not
Communication level within group Rating scale 1) Frequent, lively verbal communication between most group members,
2) Occasional verbal communication,
3) Almost no verbal communication among group members
Day of observation Nominal 1) Workday
2) Weekend