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Table 2 Study; Types of PA; Intensity of PA; Duration of intervention; Modified for depression?; Motivational component?; PA assessment; Delivery mode; and Outcome

From: A scoping study of interventions to increase the uptake of physical activity (PA) amongst individuals with mild-to-moderate depression (MMD)

Study Types of PA Intensity of PA Duration of intervention Modified for depression? Motivational component PA assessed and assessment method Delivery mode Outcome (re increasing an uptake of PA amongst those with depression)
Forsyth et al., 2009 [64] Various e.g. waking;
Some participants were referred to leisure facilities.
Information unavailable 12 weeks Yes Yes: Motivational Interviewing (MI) Yes
An indirect measure: muscular endurance and aerobic fitness tests
MC:
Face-to-face
PAC:
Mainly unsupervised
Successful:
The intervention was successful in increasing the participants’ muscular endurance and aerobic fitness.
Mailey et al., 2010 [25] Various e.g. walking The participants were asked to fill in an activity log to report on the perceived intensity of PA 10 weeks Yes Yes: Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)
Four modules with components addressing barriers to the uptake and maintenance of PA.
Module 1. Getting Started: covered the benefits of exercise;
Module 2. Planning for Success: introduced self-efficacy, outcome expectations and goal setting;
Module 3. Beating the Odds: looked at barriers to PA and the ways of overcoming them;
Module 4. Sticking with it: provided guidance on maintenance.
Yes
An objective assessment: Pedometer
Plus a subjective, self-reported, measure:
An activity log for monitoring:
a) PA type
Perceived exertion during PA
MC:
Internet-based plus two monthly meetings with PA counsellors
PAC:
Unsupervised
Successful:
The intervention showed statistically significant improvement in both, the control and intervention conditions. However, the exercise self-efficacy declined over the duration of the intervention, but more so in the control than intervention condition.
Oeland et al., 2010 [31] Supervised sessions:
1) Aerobic training of cardiorespiratory functioning
2) Weight lifting: 5 basic exercises for leg, chest, abdomen, and lower and upper back muscles.
Home-based physical activity
1) High intensity aerobic exercises: 65%–75% of maximum aerobic capacity
2) Intensity: 10 RM (repetition max)
3) Home-based physical activity - intensity not provided
Supervised sessions: 2 x week
Home-based PA: 1 x week
20 weeks Yes No Yes
A subjective, self-reported, measure of PA:
The International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version
Plus an indirect measure of PA: VO2
MC:
N/A
PAC:
Face-to-face
A structured and supervised group PA programme
Plus one unsupervised PA session per week
Successful but low uptake:
The interventions showed significant improvements in levels of PA as measured by VO2 but the uptake of the intervention was low.
Pentecost et al., 2015 [32] Various, e.g. walking, gardening, dancing, swimming, gym-based PA Intensity of aerobic exercise & strength training was measured
Plus a subjective measure: self-reported intensity of PA
1) Sedentary, 2) light PA
3) Moderate PA, 4) vigorous, 5) moderate and vigorous
16–20 weeks Yes Yes
The participants were randomly allocated to Behavioural Activation (BA) or Behavioural Activation plus physical activity promotion (BAcPAc) intervention arm.
Yes
An objective assessment:
Pedometer
Plus a subjective, measure: self-reported intensity of PA: ‘light’, ‘moderate’ or ‘vigorous’, recorded in a diary
MC:
Face-to-face, over the telephone or the combination of both
An initial assessment, plus up to 12 support sessions with PWPs.
Plus a written self-help booklet based on BA protocol.
PAC:
Unsupervised
Unsuccessful:
The engagement of IAPT practitioners and hence, participant recruitment, proved challenging.
Piette et al., 2011 [26] Walking Information unavailable 12 months in total:
12 weeks weekly sessions plus nine monthly booster sessions
Yes Yes: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Yes
An objective assessment: Pedometer
MC:
Over the telephone or face-to-face
PAC:
Unsupervised
Successful:
The intervention was successful in increasing an uptake of PA.
Suija et al., 2009 [27] Nordic Walking Information unavailable 24 weeks Yes No Yes
A subjective, self-reported, measure: PA diaries
Plus the physical fitness assessment: 2 km walking test
MC:
N/A
PAC:
Unsupervised
Unsuccessful:
No improvements in an uptake and levels of PA; only 4 depressed participants completed the intervention.
Crone et al., 2008 [33] Gym-based PA Information unavailable 8–12 weeks No No Yes
The researchers monitored the number of PA sessions attended by the participants:
Attenders (< 80% attendance)
Completers (≥80% attendance)
Pre-entering the PA programme:
Face-to-face referral by a healthcare professional (general practitioners, GP; practice nurse; physiotherapist; or other: dietitians, psychiatrists, nurse specialists, cardiac nurses, health visitors, smoking cessation officers, healthy lifestyle coordinators), to a local leisure centre
MC:
N/A
PAC:
One-to-one consultations with an exercise professional
Unsuccessful:
Embedded within PARS; the study compared outcomes of uptake, attendance and completion of the programme between patients in two groups (Group 1: Mental Health; Group 2: Physical Health).
Referrals with a mental health condition had poorer attendance and completion rates that those referred with a physical health condition.
Duda et al., 2014 [28] Outdoors (e.g. walking) plus Gym-based PA Time spent in moderate or vigorous PA was recorded, 8–12 weeks No Yes: Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
It compared two types of PARS, a standard provision and the SDT-based.
Yes
A subjective, self-reported, measure:
The 7-Day Physical Activity Recall
Pre-entering the PA programme:
Face-to-face
Individuals enrolled by their GPs or practice nurse to an exercise referral scheme.
MC:
The initial consultation with SDT-trained health and fitness advisors (HTA):
Face-to-face
An additional 2 brief interactions with HTA:
Face-to-face or over the telephone
The final consultation with HTA:
Face-to-face
PAC:
One-to-one consultation with an exercise professional
Unsuccessful in the sense that there was no difference in activity levels between the two arms of the study; as such the intervention made no difference over standard provision. However, it is worth noting that physical activity increased and depression improved in both arms.
Littlecott et al., 2014 [29] Gym-based PA The perceived intensity of PA was assessed (moderate intensity or greater intensity, where ‘moderate’ was defined as how participants feel when walking at a normal pace) 6–19 weeks
(intended duration 16 weeks)
No Yes: the integrated Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Self-Efficacy Theory (SET), and social support Yes
A subjective, self-reported, measure:
The General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ)
Pre-entering the PA programme:
Face-to-face referral by healthcare professional
MC:
The PARS MC component (based on SDT and SET):Information unavailable; reported elsewhere
Support from family and friends.
PAC:
One-to-one consultation with an exercise professional;
Supervised group-based activity
Unsuccessful:
There was some statistically significant improvement in levels of PA post-intervention but only in the coronary heart disease (CHD) group. Adherence was poor amongst mental health patients.
Pomp et al., 2013 [30] Various e.g. swimming, running, Self-reported; the perceived intensity of PA (i.e. moderate or strenuous) 6 weeks No Yes: Self-Regulation
The intervention included an encouragement to form 5 post-rehabilitation action plans (where and when), and to generate post-rehabilitation physical activity ideas (types of PA). In addition, the intervention included the volitional strategy of action control.
Yes
A subjective, self-reported, measure:
A modified version of the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), plus a PA diary
MC:
Computer-based
PAC:
Unsupervised
Unsuccessful:
A computer-based self-regulation intervention to increase PA/engage in regular PA after discharge from the orthopaedic clinics, and the researchers were interested in whether or not depression limits the usefulness of this programme.
Without modification for depression, the intervention did not work.