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Table 3 Age- and sex-adjusted and sex-specific logistic regression model results for the failure to achieve control targets by income category

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiometabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes

  Control previous yeara Unachieved targetsb
  HbA1c > 7% LDL > 100 mg/dl BP > 140/90 mmHg Tobacco use
OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Total
 ≥ 18.000 € Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 < 18.000 € 0.89(0.83,0.94) < 0.001c 1.19(1.12,1.27) < 0.001 0.90(0.85,0.96) 0.004 1.00(0.94,1.08) 0.119 0.98(0.88,1.10) 0.375d
 Excluded 1.01(0.89,1.15)   1.19(1.04,1.37)   0.86(0.74,0.99)   1.16(1.00,1.34)   1.17(0.91,1.50)  
Males
 ≥ 18.000 € Reference   Reference        
 < 18.000 € 0.80(0.75,0.86) < 0.001 1.22(1.13,1.32) < 0.001 0.89(0.82,0.96) < 0.001 0.99(0.91,1.07) 0.126 1.02(0.90,1.16) 0.385
 Excluded 0.93(0.77,1.12)   1.27(1.03,1.56)   0.73(0.59,0.90)   1.24(0.99,1.54)   1.25(0.91,1.72)  
Females
 ≥ 18.000 € Reference   Reference        
 < 18.000 € 1.09(0.98, 1.22) 0.086 1.14(1.01,1.28) 0.102 0.93(0.82,1.05) 0.425 1.05(0.93,1.19) 0.442 0.82(0.64,1.08) 0.339
 Excluded 1.22(1.01,1.47)   1.11(0.91,1.36)   1.00(0.81,1.23)   1.15(0.93,1.41)   0.92(0.60,1.40)  
  1. All models were adjusted by age (continuous) and basic health zone (random effect), resulting significant p-values for both in all cases
  2. aControl previous year: Response variable is 'To have HbA1c data within the past 15 months'
  3. bUnachieved targets: Response variable for each risk factor is 'Not to have reached current local targets'
  4. cInteraction between income and sex was significant, and interaction between income and pensioner status was significant:
  5. OR for non-pensioners: in males, category ‘< 18,000 €’ 0.93(0.81, 1.04); category excluded 1.19(0.96, 1.48); in females, category ‘< 18,000 €’ 1.37(1.11, 1.69), excluded 1.71(1.28, 2.29)
  6. OR for pensioners: in males, category ‘< 18,000 €’ 0.76(0.70, 0.84); category excluded 0.58(0.39, 0.88); in females, category ‘< 18,000 €’ 1.07(0.94, 1.21), excluded 1.04(0.80, 1.35)
  7. dInteraction between income and pensioner status significant. OR for non pensioners: category ‘< 18.000 €’ 1.10(0.91, 1.33), excluded 1.01(0.75,1.35), OR for pensioners: category ‘< 18,000 €’ 0.97(0.84, 1.13), excluded 1.85(1.11, 2.96)