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Table 3 Primary outcomes - more active versus less active groups (Indirect measures of balance)

From: The association between balance and free-living physical activity in an older community-dwelling adult population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Comparison or subgroup No. of studies N Effect size (95% CI) Heterogeneity
Neuromuscular measure of gait
 *1 Preferred walking speed (m/s). 4 284 0.24 (−0.69, 1.17) 91%
 Preferred walking speed (m/s). 2 194 0.66 (0.26, 1.06) 20%
Neuromuscular measures of strength
 *2 Handgrip (Kg). ++ 2 210 1.73 (−1.20, 4.66) 23%
 *3 Isometric knee extension. 4 320 0.63 (0.40, 0.87) 35%
 3.1 Isometric knee extension. 3 292 0.64 (0.35, 0.94) 25%
 *4 Ultrasound. 2 158 0.57 (0.25, 0.89) 0%
Neuromuscular measures of functionality
 *5 Timed Up & Go. (s) Low value indicates better balance. 4 286 −0.76 (−1.01, −0.51) 0%
 5.1 Timed Up & Go. (s) Low value indicates better balance. 2 161 −0.70 (−1.03, − 0.37) 0%
 *6 Single Leg Stance. (s) 4 181 −0.25 (−1.86, 1.37) 95%
 6.1 Single Leg Stance. (s) 2 110 1.17 (0.74, 1.60) 0%
 *7 Activities of Balance Confidence. 4 220 1.33 (0.73, 1.94) 74%
 7.1 Activities of Balance Confidence. 3 155 1.47 (0.70, 2.25) 70%
Neuromuscular measures of flexibility
 *8 Functional reach (forward) (m). 4 304 1.18 (0.61, 1.75) 74%
 8.1 Functional reach (forward) (m). 2 193 0.80 (0.48, 1.11) 0%
Sensory measures
 *9 Knee joint repositioning (degrees). 2 58 −1.37 (−2.29, −0.45) 59%
Cognitive measures
 *10 Mini Mental State Exam. ++ 4 229 0.37 (−0.35, 1.09) 60%
 *11 Reaction time (s). Low value indicates better balance. 3 198 −0.75 (−1.45, − 0.04) 83%
 11.1 Reaction time (s). Low value indicates better balance. 2 132 −0.41(− 0.84, 0.01) 33%
  1. Note: Data is shown for 11 variables. For some variables there are two sets of data, the first set of data identified with * includes all available data, whereas the second set of data excludes studies at high risk of bias
  2. Analyses with <2 studies providing data are not shown (maximal walking speed, functional reach (back, left, right), and range of motion are excluded)
  3. Higher value indicates better balance unless otherwise stated
  4. ++ Mean difference (95% CI) was calculated (MMSE and Handgrip test) and standardised mean (95% CI) calculated for all other measures.