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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants in the Baden-Württemberg Study (2010-2011)

From: Skipping breakfast, overconsumption of soft drinks and screen media: longitudinal analysis of the combined influence on weight development in primary schoolchildren

  Missing Girls Boys Total
  Values (n=852) (n=881) (n=1733)
Child characteristics
 Age, years [m (sd)]   7.07 (0.64) 7.09 (0.63) 7.08 (0.63)
 Migration background, n (%) 244 235 (31.6) 227 (30.5) 462 (31.0)
 Control group, n (%)   371 (43.5) 407 (46.2) 778 (44.9)
 Weight in kg [m (sd)]   24.45 (4.50)** 24.88 (4.82) 24.67 (4.91)
 BMI, [m (sd)]   15.99 (2.19) 15.97 (2.08) 15.98 (2.14)
 BMIPERC, [m (sd)]   48.96 (27.74) 48.15 (27.57) 48.55 (27.65)
 Overweight, n (%)   82 (9.6) 83 (9.4) 165 (9.5)
 Obesity, n (%)   30 (3.5) 38 (4.3) 68 (3.9)
 WC, cm [m (sd)]   55.15 (5.91)* 55.79 (5.54) 55.48 (5.73)
 WHtR, [m (sd)]   0.45 (0.04) 0.45 (0.04) 0.45 (0.04)
 Abdominal obesity, n (%)   78 (9.2)* 57 (6.5) 135 (7.8)
Parental characteristics
 Single parent, n (%) 218 85 (11.3) 71 (9.3) 156 (10.3)
 Maternal smoking during pregnancy, n (%) 196 65 (8.5)* 91 (11.8) 156 (10.1)
 Breastfeeding, n (%) 194 651 (85.1) 535 (82.0) 1286 (83.6)
 Breastfeeding months [m (sd)] 462 5.55 (3.46) 5.68 (4.05) 5.61 (3.76)
 Tertiary family educational level, n (%) 269 237 (32.6) 238 (32.3) 475 (32.4)
 Household income ≤ 1750 €, n (%) 381 88 (13.1) 83 (12.2) 171 (12.6)
 Overweight (mother), n (%) 300 223 (31.4) 217 (30.1) 440 (30.7)
 Overweight (father), n (%) 392 417 (62.8) 400 (59.1) 817 (60.9)
 Abdominal obesity (mother), n (%) 788 228 (48.1) 219 (46.5) 447 (47.3)
 Abdominal obesity (father), n (%) 871 325 (76.3) 317 (72.7) 642 (74.5)
Health and lifestyle characteristics
 Playing outside > 60 min/day, n (%) 248 462 (62.9)*** 558 (74.4) 1020 (68.7)
 Physically active ≥ 4 days/week ≥ 60 min/day, n (%) 263 161 (22.1)*** 238 (32.1) 399 (27.1)
 Screen media > 1 h/day, n (%) 205 86 (11.3)* 119 (15.5) 205 (13.4)
  PC on school days > 1 h/day, n (%) 246 2 (0.3)** 14 (1.9) 16 (1.1)
  PC at weekends > 1 h/day, n (%) 236 28 (3.7)*** 72 (9.6) 100 (6.7)
  TV on school days > 1 h/day, n (%) 217 89 (11.8)* 124 (16.3) 213 (14.1)
  TV at weekends > 1 h/day, n (%) 228 362 (48.1) 390 (51.8) 752 (50.0)
 Soft drinks > 1 time per week n (%) 197 178 (23.3) 198 (25.7) 376 (24.5)
  At school, n (%) 226 57 (7.5) 52 (6.9) 109 (7.2)
  Outside school, n (%) 224 174 (23.3) 192 (25.2) 366 (24.3)
 Skipping breakfast, n (%) 195 116 (15.2)** 82 (10.6) 198 (12.9)
  1. m (sd) mean (standard deviation), BMI body mass index, BMIPERC BMI percentiles, WHtR waist-to-height-ratio, WC waist circumference
  2. *** p< 0.001, ** p< 0.01, * p< 0.05