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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of herpes zoster cases and matched controls

From: Epidemiology and long-term disease burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Taiwan: a population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study

  Before matching After matching
HZ cases (N = 115,202) Controls (N = 34,506,574) p a Absolute standardized difference HZ cases (N = 115,105) Controls (N = 115,105) p b Absolute standardized difference
N % N % N % N %
Age, years, mean (SD) 73.76 (6.15) 74.35 (6.01) < 0.01 0.0973 73.75 (6.13) 73.65 (6.00) < 0.01 0.0154
 65–74 70,658 61.33 19,920,118 57.73 < 0.01 0.0734 70,639 61.37 71,849 62.42 < 0.01 0.0216
 75–84 38,655 33.55 12,727,647 36.88 0.0698 38,622 33.55 37,685 32.74 0.0172
  ≥ 85 5889 5.11 1,858,809 5.39 0.0126 5844 5.08 5571 4.84 0.0111
Female 61,312 53.22 18,341,566 53.15 0.6 0.0014 61,262 53.22 61,262 53.22 0.0000
CCI, mean (SD) 1.21 (1.36) 1.51 (1.49) < 0.01 0.2101 1.21 (1.36) 1.19 (1.33) < 0.01 0.0132
 0 44,044 38.23 10,025,484 29.05 < 0.01 0.1952 44,020 38.24 43,392 37.70 < 0.01 0.0111
 1 33,894 29.42 10,363,659 30.03 0.0133 33,877 29.43 35,261 30.63 0.0262
 2 19,481 16.91 6,757,478 19.58 0.0692 19,465 16.91 19,589 17.02 0.0029
  ≥ 3 17,783 15.44 7,359,953 21.33 0.1525 17,743 15.41 16,863 14.65 0.0213
Comorbidities
Autoimmune diseases 14,647 12.71 5,256,307 15.23 < 0.01 0.0727 14,624 12.70 15,114 13.13 < 0.01 0.0128
Diabetes mellitus 25,247 21.92 9,368,723 27.15 < 0.01 0.1218 25,220 21.91 24,268 21.08 < 0.01 0.0202
CKD 8723 7.57 3,189,248 9.24 < 0.01 0.0602 8703 7.56 8400 7.30 < 0.05 0.0099
COPD 15,792 13.71 5,603,605 16.24 < 0.01 0.0709 15,765 13.70 15,048 13.07 < 0.01 0.0185
Depression 4516 3.92 2,017,321 5.85 < 0.01 0.0896 4502 3.91 4644 4.03 0.1 0.0061
Healthcare utilizations mean SD mean SD    mean SD mean SD   
No. outpatient visits 25.66 21.26 36.56 26.98 < 0.01 0.4487 25.58 20.96 25.64 21.00 < 0.01 0.0030
No. ER visits 0.43 1.12 0.51 1.40 < 0.01 0.0621 0.42 1.10 0.42 1.25 0.6 0.0018
No. inpatient admissions 0.24 0.65 0.31 0.75 < 0.01 0.1011 0.24 0.65 0.24 0.63 < 0.01 0.0108
  1. CCI charlson comorbidity index, CKD chronic kidney diseases, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HZ herpes zoster, ER emergency room, SD standard deviation
  2. aChi-square test for categorical variables, t-test for continuous variables
  3. bMcNemar’s test for categorical variables, paired t-test for continuous variables