Skip to main content

Table 3 Covariate parameter estimatesa,b

From: Gender differences in the associations between age trends of social media interaction and well-being among 10-15 year olds in the UK

  Happiness SDQ total difficulties
Females (n = 4765) Males (n = 4903) Females (n = 4762) Males (n = 4901)
Well-beingc
 No qualification 0.24 (− 0.22, 0.69) − 0.47 (− 0.90, − 0.03) 0.71 (0.10, 1.30) 1.50 (0.91, 2.10)
 GCSE/Other qualification 0.11 (− 0.24, 0.46) − 0.40 (− 0.73, − 0.06) 0.60 (0.15, 1.05) 0.90 (0.44, 1.36)
 A-level − 0.21 (− 0.66, 0.20) − 0.29 (− 0.67, 0.08) 0.43 (− 0.09, 0.95) 0.80 (0.27, 1.32)
 Other higher Qualification 0.02 (− 0.43, 0.46) − 0.52 (− 0.97, − 0.08) 0.21 (− 0.38, 0.80) 0.45 (− 0.15, 1.04)
 Degree (Ref)     
 Unpartnered Mother − 0.81 (− 1.12, − 0.51) − 0.69 (− 0.98, − 0.39) 0.51 (0.12, 0.91) 0.88 (0.47, 1.29)
 Partnered Mother (Ref)     
 Unpartnered Father −1.52 (−2.52, − 0.52) − 0.60 (− 1.35, 0.15) 1.37 (0.23, 2.49) 0.77 (− 0.28, 1.81)
 Partnered Father (Ref)     
Social Media Interactionc
 No qualification 0.85 (0.60, 1.10) 0.87 (0.62, 1.12) 0.85 (0.59, 1.11) 0.88 (0.61, 1.14)
 GCSE/Other qualification 0.84 (0.65, 1.03) 0.62 (0.43, 0.80) 0.85 (0.66, 1.04) 0.62 (0.42, 0.81)
 A-level 0.56 (0.33, 0.78) 0.59 (0.38, 0.81) 0.57 (0.35, 0.79) 0.60 (0.38, 0.82)
 Other higher Qualification 0.60 (0.36, 0.84) 0.45 (0.22, 0.68) 0.61 (0.37, 0.85) 0.45 (0.22, 0.69)
 Degree (Ref)     
 Unpartnered Mother 0.41 (0.26, 0.56) 0.32 (0.17, 0.48) 0.41 (0.26, 0.56) 0.32 (0.16, 0.48)
 Partnered Mother (Ref)     
 Unpartnered Father 0.12 (− 0.37, 0.61) 0.37 (− 0.06, 0.80) 0.15 (− 0.34, 0.63) 0.37 (− 0.07, 0.82)
 Partnered Father (Ref)     
Well-being Intercept
 Black African/Caribbean 1.06 (0.38, 1.74) 1.14 (0.25, 2.04) −1.72 (−2.65, − 0.79) −1.38 (−2.66, − 0.11)
 Asian 0.46 (− 0.16, 1.07) 0.80 (0.25, 1.35) − 0.91 (− 1.75, − 0.08) −1.56 (− 2.39, − 0.72)
 Other Ethnicity 0.84 (0.003, 1.68) − 0.15 (− 1.08, 0.79) − 0.37 (− 1.62, 0.88) − 0.37 (− 1.62, 0.89)
 Mixed Ethnicity − 0.67 (− 1.55, 0.20) 0.42 (− 0.34, 1.17) −0.10 (− 1.16, 0.96) −0.83 (− 1.80, 0.14)
 White (Ref)     
 Mean Log Household Income 0.11 (−0.33, 0.54) −0.28 (− 0.71, 0.16) −0.57 (− 1.20, 0.07) 0.04 (− 0.63, 0.70)
Well-being Slope
 Black African/Caribbean −0.05 (− 0.27, 0.17) 0.004 (− 0.25, 0.26) −0.02 (− 0.26, 0.21) −0.20 (− 0.51, 0.11)
 Asian 0.18 (0.01, 0.36) 0.31 (0.15, 0.47) −0.16 (− 0.37, 0.05) −0.12 (− 0.34, 0.09)
 Other Ethnicity − 0.14 (− 0.41, 0.13) 0.14 (− 0.09, 0.36) −0.28 (− 0.56, − 0.002) −0.02 (− 0.31, 0.26)
 Mixed Ethnicity 0.04 (− 0.24, 0.32) −0.15 (− 0.37, 0.08) 0.08 (− 0.15, 0.32) 0.11 (− 0.13, 0.34)
 White (Ref)     
 Mean Log Household Income 0.06 (−0.06, 0.17) 0.20 (0.10, 0.31) −0.03 (− 0.17, 0.12) −0.03 (− 0.18, 0.11)
Social Media Interaction Intercept
 Black African/Caribbean −0.04 (− 0.44, 0.36) 0.07 (− 0.53, 0.68) −0.04 (− 0.44, 0.36) 0.06 (− 0.54, 0.67)
 Asian −0.81 (−1.14, − 0.48) −0.47 (− 0.80, − 0.13) −0.80 (− 1.13, − 0.47) −0.48 (− 0.81, − 0.14)
 Other Ethnicity −0.04 (− 0.50, 0.42) 0.22 (− 0.27, 0.71) −0.01 (− 0.47, 0.45) 0.21 (− 0.28, 0.70)
 Mixed Ethnicity −0.53 (− 1.00, − 0.06) −0.08 (− 0.57, 0.41) −0.53 (− 1.00, − 0.07) −0.09 (− 0.57, 0.40)
 White (Ref)     
 Mean Log Household Income −0.34 (− 0.58, − 0.10) −0.16 (− 0.41, 0.09) −0.36 (− 0.60, − 0.12) −0.16 (− 0.41, 0.09)
Social Media Interaction Slope
 Black African/Caribbean −0.05 (− 0.17, 0.06) −0.02 (− 0.14, 0.10) −0.06 (− 0.17, 0.06) −0.03 (− 0.15, 0.09)
 Asian − 0.27 (− 0.37, − 0.17) −0.10 (− 0.18, − 0.03) −0.27 (− 0.37, − 0.17) −0.11 (− 0.19, − 0.04)
 Other ethnicity −0.12 (− 0.26, 0.01) −0.10 (− 0.20, 0.004) −0.17 (− 0.27, − 0.03) −0.09 (− 0.19, 0.01)
 Mixed ethnicity 0.13 (0.01, 0.26) 0.01 (−0.09, 0.11) 0.14 (0.02, 0.27) 0.01 (−0.09, 0.10)
 White (Ref)     
 Mean log household income 0.08 (0.02, 0.14) 0.05 (−0.004, 0.11) 0.09 (0.03, 0.15) 0.06 (−0.002, 0.11)
  1. Abbreviation: GCSE General Certificate of Secondary Education, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
  2. aOther ethnicity = Gypsy or Irish Traveller, Other White, Any other Asian background, Any other Black background, Arab, Any other ethnic group
  3. bGCSE exams taken at age 16 (year 11); A Level exam taken at age 18 (year 13); Examples of other higher qualifications are teaching, nursing or diploma certifications /qualifications; Other qualifications include CSE, skill s certifications, apprenticeships, clerical qualifications, etc.
  4. cAverage effects across age - covariate regressions were held to be equal across ages