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Table 2 Chi2 associations between sexual initiation and sociodemographics, and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the association between sexual initiation and sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics by gender

From: Sexual intercourse, age of initiation and contraception among adolescents in Ireland: findings from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Ireland study

  Chi2 association between sexual initiation and sociodemographic characteristics Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the association between sexual initiation and sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics
  Boys (n = 2151) Girls (n = 1923) Boys (n = 1742) Girls (n = 1604)
  Sexually initiated
% (n)
Not sexually initiated
% (n)
Sexually initiated
% (n)
Not sexually initiated
% (n)
(EXP B) OR 95% C.I. for EXP (B) (EXP B) OR 95% C.I. for EXP (B)
Sociodemographics  
 Age
  15 years 26.5 (243)*** 73.5 (673) 16.2 (136)*** 83.8 (703) 1.302** 1.075–1.578 1.628*** 1.326–1.998
  16 years 25.7 (196) 74.3 (568) 21.9 (155) 78.1 (552)     
  17 years 38.4 (155) 61.6 (249) 37.2 (124) 62.8 (209)     
  18 years 37.3 (25) 62.7 (42) 54.5 (24) 45.5 (20)     
 Social Class (SES)
  Low 29.3 (76)*** 70.7 (183) 27.9 (68)*** 72.1 (176) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Middle 30.2 (221) 69.8 (512) 25.0 (157) 75.0 (470) 1.019 0.687–1.512 1.109 0.679–1.812
  High 23.2 (197) 76.8 (652) 17.6 (145) 82.4 (678) 0.889 0.593–1.333 0.732 0.461–1.162
 Family affluence (FAS)
  Low 35.0 (75) 65.0 (139) 29.9 (60)*** 70.1 (141) 1.225 0.714–2.100 1.351 0.766–2.382
  Middle 27.7 (253) 72.3 (662) 25.2 (185) 74.8 (550) 0.956 0.722–1.265 1.176 0.856–1.615
  High 26.8 (249) 73.2 (681) 19.3 (180) 80.7 (754) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Urban/rural status
  Urban 29.4 (389) 70.6 (935) 22.2 (285) 77.8 (1000) 1.001 (0.699–1.433) 0.964 0.671–1.385
  Rural 27.8 (230) 72.2 (597) 24.1 (154) 75.9 (484) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Traveller statusb
  Traveller 84.4 (28)*** 15.2 (5) 45.5 (10)** 54.5 (12) 4.554* 1.210–17.140 2.873 0.885–9.321
  Non-traveller 27.9 (584) 72.1 (1510) 22.6 (423) 77.4 (1451) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Disability/Chronic illness (D/CI)
  D/CI 30.7 (143) 69.3 (323) 26.8 (105)* 73.2 (287) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  No D/CI 28.2 (467) 71.8 (1190) 21.7 (327) 78.3 (1179) 0.873 0.643-1.186 0.901 0.621-1.307
 Household composition
  Living with both parents 25.0 (411)*** 75.0 (1232) 19.8 (287)*** 80.2 (1164) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Not living with both parents 40.7 (203) 59.3 (296) 32.3 (151) 67.7 (317) 1.604** 1.134–2.268 1.233 0.883–1.721
Lifestyle characteristics
 Positive lifestyle behaviours
  Frequency of physical activity      1.127 0.976–1302 1.051 0.897–1.232
  Active travel      0.953 0.824–1.102 0.827 0.681–1.004
  Eating breakfast      0.958 0.825–1.112 1.070 0.928–1.234
  Healthy food consumption      1.021 0.903–1.156 0.865 0.739–1.013
  Health protective behaviour      0.927 0.802–1.071 0.972 0.760–1.244
 Negative lifestyle behaviours         
  Alcohol involvement      2.162*** 1.831–2.554 2.098*** 1.779–2.474
  Cannabis involvement      1.581*** 1.374–1.818 1.531*** 1.246–1.881
  Unhealthy food from parents      1.039 0.911–1.185 1.086 0.937–1.258
  Tobacco involvement      1.409*** 1.228–1.618 1.833*** 1.593–2.110
  Unhealthy food consumption      1.114 0.976–1.272 1.202* 1.036–1.394
 Health
  Experience of health symptoms      1.105 0.951–1.284 1.138 0.950–1.362
  Quality of life      1.034 0.877–1.220 0.952 0.807–1.124
  Medication for physical symptoms      1.167* 1.012–1.345 1.117 0.962–1.296
  Medication for psychological symptoms      1.093 0.935–1.278 1.068 0.935–1.220
Socio-cultural environment
  Communication with friends      1.307*** 1.140–1.497 1.561*** 1.238–1.968
  Sense of community      1.131 0.984–1.300 1.125 0.952–1.329
  Poor neighbourhood environment      1.313*** 1.139–1.514 1.211* 1.038–1.413
  Bullying others      1.137 0.972–1.330 1.444* 1.092–1.910
  Music and drama      0.754** 0.622–0.913 0.869* 0.759–0.994
  Being bullied      1.052 0.925–1.197 1.248* 1.052–1.482
  Club or team activities      1.267** 1.108–1.449 1.009 0.861–1.183
  Parental communication      0.986 0.838–1.160 0.918 0.774–1.088
  Health check ups      1.011 0.876–1.166 1.074 0.938–1.230
  1. * p ≤ .05; ** p ≤ .01; *** p ≤ .001. Nagelkerke R2 = 0.631 (boys), Nagelkerke R2 = 0.399 (girls)
  2. bCaution must be taken when extrapolating from this finding given the small sample size