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Table 1 Sample basic characteristics according to the categorized cigarette smoking status

From: Smoking, leisure-time exercise and frequency of self-reported common cold among the general population in northeastern China: a cross-sectional study

Variables Sample
(n = 1413)
Cigarette smoking categories
Non-smokers
(n = 641)
Passive smokers (n = 476) Past smokers
(n = 82)
Light current smokers
(n = 113)
Heavy current smokers (n = 101)
Gender, n (%)**
 Male 627(44.4) 185(28.9) 155(32.6) 78(95.1) 108(95.6) 101(100.0)
Age, y** 38.92 ± 9.04 38.07 ± 8.83 38.63 ± 9.32 43.95 ± 8.0 38.81 ± 8.81 41.75 ± 8.36
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Han 1293(91.5) 591(92.2) 426(89.5) 75(91.5) 107(94.7) 94(93.1)
Education levels, n (%)*
 Senior school or less 83(5.9) 33(5.1) 23(4.8) 11(13.4) 8(7.1) 8(7.9)
 Junior college 326(23.1) 137(21.4) 113(23.7) 23(28.0) 24(21.2) 29(28.7)
 Bachelor degree 799(56.5) 365(56.9) 270(56.7) 42(51.2) 64(56.6) 58(57.4)
 Master degree or greater 205(14.5) 106(16.5) 70(14.7) 6(7.3) 17(15.0) 6(5.9)
BMI** 23.90 ± 5.36 23.70 ± 6.89 23.20 ± 3.52 25.90 ± 3.2 25.60 ± 3.21 25.40 ± 3.26
Frequency of drinking (days/week), n (%)**
 0 859(60.8) 481(75.0) 293(61.6) 26(31.7) 24(21.2) 35(34.7)
 1–2 468(33.1) 143(22.3) 165(34.7) 47(57.3) 69(61.1) 44(43.6)
  ≥ 3 86(6.1) 17(2.7) 18(3.8) 9(11.0) 20(17.7) 22(21.8)
Sleep duration, n (%)**
  < 7 hours 402(28.5) 168(26.2) 130(27.3) 22(26.8) 52(46.0) 30(29.7)
 7–8 hours 561(39.7) 243(37.9) 195(41.0) 37(45.1) 38(33.6) 48(47.5)
  ≥ 8 hours 450(31.8) 230(35.9) 151(31.7) 23(28.0) 23(20.4) 23(22.8)
SRSS, n (%)
  ≥ 23 594(42.0) 257(40.1) 215(45.2) 25(30.5) 52(46.0) 45(44.6)
Self-rated health, n (%)
 Poor 168(11.9) 67(10.5) 61(12.8) 7(8.5) 15(13.3) 18(17.8)
 Fair 718(50.8) 317(49.5) 244(51.3) 45(54.9) 66(58.4) 46(45.5)
 Good 527(37.3) 257(40.1) 171(35.9) 30(36.6) 32(28.3) 37(36.6)
Self-perceived life stress, n (%)**
 Low 217(15.4) 108(16.8) 69(14.5) 14(17.1) 12(10.6) 14(13.9)
 Fair 751(53.1) 370(57.7) 243(51.1) 43(52.4) 49(43.4) 46(45.5)
 High 445(31.5) 163(25.4) 164(34.5) 25(30.5) 52(46.0) 41(40.6)
Self-perceived work stress, n (%)*
 Low 165(11.7) 76(11.9) 56(11.8) 12(14.6) 12(10.6) 9(8.9)
 Fair 615(43.5) 306(47.7) 183(38.4) 40(48.8) 42(37.2) 44(43.6)
 High 633(44.8) 259(40.4) 237(49.8) 30(36.6) 59(52.2) 48(47.5)
SAS, n (%)*
  ≥ 50 219(15.5) 87(13.6) 89(18.7) 7(8.5) 15(13.3) 21(20.8)
SDS, n (%)*
  ≥ 50 561(39.7) 236(36.8) 200(42.0) 28(34.1) 45(39.8) 52(51.5)
NE** 3.78(3.10, 4.56) 3.70(3.07, 4.49) 3.73(3.00, 4.47) 3.56(3.09, 4.33) 3.94(3.22, 4.69) 4.78(3.84, 5.76)
MO** 0.29(0.21, 0.39) 0.28(0.21, 0.37) 0.29(0.22, 0.39) 0.30(0.21, 0.39) 0.30(0.21, 0.42) 0.42(0.28, 0.51)
LY** 2.15(1.83, 2.54) 2.13(1.81, 2.52) 2.10(1.77, 2.43) 2.14(1.80, 2.50) 2.25(1.97, 2.77) 2.47(2.10, 2.87)
  1. Values are shown as the mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) for continuous data and number and proportions for categorical data
  2. P-values were calculated by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis H tests for continuous variables and χ2-tests for categorical variables
  3. Superscript numbers denote statistically significant post hoc tests: ≤ 0.05/4 for the difference between current, past, passive smokers and non-smokers. Current, past and passive smokers were compared with non-smokers
  4. *Statistical significance: P < 0.05
  5. **Statistical significance: P < 0.001