Skip to main content

Table 5 Risk factors linked with blood lipid indicators among school age children in Ghana

From: Lipid profile and dyslipidemia among school-age children in urban Ghana

Explanatory variables coefficient p-value 95% Confidence Interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Total Cholesterol
Fixed effects
 Sex (female) −3.388 0.513 −13.531 6.755
 Age, yr 2.015 0.218 −1.189 5.219
 Obese1 7.808 0.108 − 1.716 17.333
 School type2 −8.024 0.311 −23.535 7.486
 Watch television in the morning 12.114 0.011 2.8319 21.397
Random effects3
 Region 26.621   9.608 73.757
 Schools 23.678   17.378 32.262
High Density Lipoprotein
Fixed effects
 Sex (female) −1.547 0.317 −4.576 1.483
 Age, yr −.502 0.298 −1.447 0.443
 Obese −4.632 0.001 −7.480 −1.785
 School type −0.330 0.872 −4.336 3.675
Random effects
 Region 11.913   4.415 32.147
 Schools 5.058   3.372 7.588
Triglycerides
Fixed Effects
 Sex(female) −7.135 0.215 −18.410 4.140
 Age −0.997 0.583 −2.566 4.560
 Obese 1.763 0.744 −8.814 12.340
 School type −7.728 0.382 −25.062 9.605
 Systolic blood pressure 0.568 0.013 0.118 1.018
 Watch television in the morning 14.464 0.006 4.145 24.782
Random effects
 Region 6.589   1.109 39.158
 Schools 26.594   18.402 38.432
Low Density lipoprotein
Fixed effects
 Sex (female) 4.870 0.321 −4.745 14.486
 Age 3.937 0.010 0.950 6.923
 Obese 14.486 0.002 5.195 23.777
 School type 3.348 0.625 −10.083 16.778
 Eating fruit 3 or more times in a week −10.583 0.020 −19.508 −1.659
 Watch television in the morning 14.464 0.006 4.145 24.782
Random effects
 Region 7.757   2.046 29.411
 Schools 17.184   12.007 24.592
Triglyceride-High Density Lipoprotein Ratio
Fixed effects
 Sex (female) 0.070 0.453 −0.113 0.253
 Age 0.070 0.012 0.015 0.125
 Obese 0.445 < 0.001 0.281 0.609
 School type 0.107 0.454 −.173 0.386
Random effects
 Region 0.149   0.036 0.614
 School 0.437   0.309 0.617
  1. Other variables controlled in model: maternal education, maternal and paternal occupation, systolic blood pressure, child fruit and vegetable consumption, activity (including means of transportation to school, engagement in sporting activity, performing household chores), and sedentary behavior (watching television in mornings)
  2. 1BMIZ = Body Mass Index-for-Age Z-Score
  3. 2Categorized as public or private school
  4. 3Represents variation in region and school