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Table 1 Description of the cohort at baseline (2000) and follow-up (2010)

From: Association between education and blood lipid levels as income increases over a decade: a cohort study

  Total Women Men  
(n = 650) (n = 428) (n = 222)
Characteristics in 2000 Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p
Age (years) 25 ± 2 25 ± 2 25 ± 2 0.333
Education (years approved) 11 ± 3 11 ± 3 11 ± 3 0.118
Per-capita income (USD/month) 97 ± 90 89 ± 82 111 ± 103 0.005
  % % % p a
Socioeconomic level     
 low 28 34 18 <  0.001
 middle low 38 29 57
 middle and high 34 37 25
Low Education (≤ 8 years) 24 23 26 0.326
Increased income (2000–2010) 60 58 62 0.416
Characteristics in 2010 Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 133 ± 73 123 ± 66 152 ± 81 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 182 ± 36 182 ± 36 183 ± 36 0.871
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 111 ± 27 112 ± 27 108 ± 27 0.075
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 48 ± 12 47 ± 12 48 ± 12 0.458
Glycemia (mg/dL) 93 ± 18 92 ± 18 95 ± 17 0.077
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 119 ± 16 116 ± 15 125 ± 15 < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 74 ± 12 73 ± 11 76 ± 12 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 29 ± 5 29 ± 5 28 ± 4 0.003
Skinfold thickness sum (mm) 76 ± 27 85 ± 24 59 ± 22 <  0.001
Physical activity (METs/week) 3486 ± 3920 2536 ± 2955 5317 ± 4809 <  0.001
Energy intake (Kcal/day) 2285 ± 920 1946 ± 688 2948 ± 956 <  0.001
  % % % p a
Triglycerides > 150 mg/dL 33 28 43 < 0.001
Total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL 28 27 31 0.286
LDL cholesterol > 130 mg/dL 21 22 21 0.766
HDL cholesterol < 40 mg/dL 28 28 27 0.737
Glycemia > 100 mg/dL 21 18 26 0.027
Blood Pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg 15 12 20 0.004
Nutritional status     0.022
 normal 25 24 28
 overweight 41 39 45
 obesity 34 37 26
  1. Student t-test; a Chi2 test