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Table 3 Estimated associations with changes in normalised health variables over the 9-year perioda

From: Widening disparities in health between educational levels and their determinants in later life: evidence from a nine-year cohort study

  Men (n = 9320) Women (n = 10,704)
Model 1 Model 3 Model 1 Model 3
Coef.b SEc Coef. SE Coef. SE Coef. SE
(1) Self-rated healthd
 Low-educated 0.16*** (0.02) 0.08*** (0.02) 0.17*** (0.02) 0.11*** (0.02)
 Low household spending    0.02 (0.02)    −0.05*** (0.01)
 Low social participation    0.23*** (0.02)    0.21*** (0.02)
 Low physical activity    0.23*** (0.04)    0.21*** (0.03)
 Smoking    0.05** (0.02)    0.03 (0.02)
 Problem drinking    0.05** (0.02)    −0.04 (0.02)
 No regular health check-up    0.07*** (0.02)    0.04** (0.02)
 Self-rated health at baseline −0.55*** (0.01) −0.57*** (0.01) −0.58*** (0.01) −0.59*** (0.01)
(2) Functional limitationsd
 Low-educated 0.05* (0.02) −0.01 (0.03) 0.16*** (0.03) 0.10*** (0.03)
 Low household spending    0.05* (0.02)    −0.03 (0.02)
 Low social participation    0.20*** (0.02)    0.19*** (0.02)
 Low physical activity    0.13** (0.05)    0.14*** (0.04)
 Smoking    0.01 (0.02)    0.13*** (0.02)
 Problem drinking    0.08** (0.03)    −0.05 (0.03)
 No regular health check-up    0.02 (0.02)    0.11*** (0.02)
 Functional limitations at baseline −0.58*** (0.01) −0.58*** (0.01) −0.50*** (0.01) −0.51*** (0.01)
(3) Psychological distressd
 Low-educated 0.14*** (0.02) 0.07*** (0.02) 0.09*** (0.02) 0.04 (0.02)
 Low household spending    0.03* (0.02)    −0.01 (0.01)
 Low social participation    0.19*** (0.02)    0.15*** (0.02)
 Low physical activity    0.08* (0.03)    0.06* (0.03)
 Smoking    0.00 (0.01)    0.04* (0.02)
 Problem drinking    0.05* (0.02)    0.00 (0.02)
 No regular health check-up    0.06*** (0.02)    0.07*** (0.02)
 Psychological distress at baseline −0.52*** (0.01) −0.54*** (0.01) −0.47*** (0.01) − 0.48*** (0.01)
  1. aControlled for ages at baseline. b Coefficient. c Standard error. d Normalised by mean and standard deviation
  2. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, *p < 0.05