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Table 1 Comparing health and other variables by educational levela (N = 20,024)

From: Widening disparities in health between educational levels and their determinants in later life: evidence from a nine-year cohort study

Educational level Men (n = 9320) Women (n = 10,704)
Lower Middle/higher Difference Lower Middle/higher Difference
(A) (B) A-B p-value (A) (B) A-B p-value
Health variables
 (1) Values at baseline         
  Self-rated health 2.84 2.68 0.16 <  0.001 2.91 2.68 0.23 <  0.001
   (range: 1-6) (0.97) (0.94)    (0.96) (0.90)   
  Functional limitations 0.22 0.14 0.08 0.007 0.32 0.21 0.11 <  0.001
   (range: 0-10) (1.27) (0.99)    (1.44) (1.07)   
  Psychological distress 2.66 2.72 −0.06 0.584 3.16 3.05 0.11 0.301
   (range: 0-24) (3.71) (3.77)    (4.04) (3.82)   
 (2) Changes over ten waves
  Self-rated health 0.21 0.15 0.06 0.042 0.16 0.14 0.02 0.404
(1.05) (1.00)    (1.00) (0.94)   
  Functional limitations 0.27 0.24 0.03 0.505 0.47 0.26 0.21 <  0.001
(1.94) (1.66)    (2.19) (1.72)   
  Psychological distress 0.58 0.05 0.53 <  0.001 0.60 0.37 0.23 0.029
(4.22) (3.85)    (4.21) (3.95)   
Potential mediators over ten waves
 Low household spendingb 0.45 0.34 0.11 <  0.001 0.49 0.37 0.12 <  0.001
(0.50) (0.47)    (0.50) (0.48)   
 Low social activityb 0.53 0.30 0.24 <  0.001 0.53 0.28 0.24 <  0.001
(0.50) (0.46)    (0.50) (0.45)   
 Low physical activity 0.98 0.95 0.04 <  0.001 0.97 0.94 0.03 <  0.001
(0.14) (0.23)    (0.18) (0.24)   
 Smoking 0.61 0.51 0.10 <  0.001 0.29 0.19 0.10 <  0.001
(0.49) (0.50)    (0.46) (0.40)   
 Problem drinking 0.19 0.17 0.02 0.022 0.12 0.10 0.02 0.063
(0.39) (0.37)    (0.32) (0.30)   
 No regular health check-up 0.80 0.66 0.14 <  0.001 0.82 0.75 0.06 <  0.001
(0.40) (0.48)    (0.39) (0.43)   
Number of individuals 1452 7868    1631 9073   
  1. a Figures in the parentheses are standard deviations. b Lowest tertile