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Table 1 Characteristics of PREPARATORY-5 participants and comparison by referral source

From: High HIV risk and syndemic burden regardless of referral source among MSM screening for a PrEP demonstration project in Toronto, Canada

  Total
(N = 86)
Self-referred (N = 52) Provider-referred (N = 34) p a
Referral Source, n (%)     NA
 An advertisement on Xtra 4 (4.65) 4 (7.69)   
 An advertisement on Grindr 30 (34.88) 30 (57.69)   
 Facebook/Online/Google 4 (4.65) 4 (7.69)   
 Friend/Word of mouth 14 (16.27) 14 (26.92)   
 Hassle Free Clinic 21 (24.42)   21 (61.76)  
 Other community based organization 8 (9.30)   8 (23.53) Community based organization
 Family physician 5 (5.81)   5 (14.71)  
Age, in years, Median (IQR) 33 (27–40) 32 (27–37) 34.5 (28–42) 0.25
Race/ethnicity, n (%)     0.47
 White, non-Hispanic 62 (72.09) 39 (75.0) 23 (67.65)  
 Non-Whiteb 24 (27.91) 13 (25.0) 11 (32.35)  
Income, n (%)     0.08
 Under $20,000 16 (18.60) 7 (13.46) 9 (26.47)  
 $20,000–$39,999 19 (22.09) 11 (21.15) 8 (23.53)  
 $40,000–$59,999 21 (24.42) 16 (30.77) 5 (14.71)  
 $60,000–$79,999 14 (16.28) 10 (19.23) 4 (11.76)  
 $80,000–$99,999 6 (6.98) 1 (1.92) 5 (14.71)  
 Over $100,000 10 (11.63) 7 (13.46) 3 (8.82)  
Education, n (%)     0.79
 No college degree 20 (23.26) 13 (25.00) 7 (20.59)  
 College degree or higher 66 (76.74) 39 (75.00) 27 (79.41)  
Sexual Orientation, n (%)     0.99
 Gay 81 (94.19) 49 (94.23) 32 (94.12)  
 Bisexual 5 (5.81) 3 (5.77) 2 (5.88)  
Has a primary care physician, n (%) 69 (80.23) 44 (84.62) 25 (73.53) 0.21
Ever heard about PrEP, n (%) 79 (91.86) 48 (92.31) 31 (91.18) 0.99
Ever used PrEP, n (%) 12 (13.95) 5 (9.62) 7 (20.59) 0.21
Used sexual performance-enhancing drugs, last 3 months, n (%) 31 (36.05) 16 (30.77) 15 (44.12) 0.20
Perceived risk (0–100%) of becoming infected with HIV in next year, Median (IQR) 37.5 (20–60) 30 (20–52.5) 50 (20–60) 0.36
HIRI-MSM and component variables
 HIRI-MSM Score, Median (IQR) 26 (19–33) 26 (19–32.5) 28.5 (20–34) 0.28
 Used poppers, last 3 months, n (%) 52 (60.47) 26 (50.00) 26 (76.47) 0.01
 Used amphetamine, last 3 months, n (%) 12 (13.95) 8 (15.38) 4 (11.76) 0.76
 Age
  < 18 years, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.20
  18–28 years, n (%) 26 (30.23) 17 (32.69) 9 (26.47)  
  29–40 years, n (%) 40 (46.51) 27 (51.92) 13 (38.24)  
  41–48 years, n (%) 13 (15.12) 5 (9.62) 8 (23.53)  
  > 48 years, n (%) 7 (8.14) 3 (5.77) 4 (11.76)  
 Total number of male sex partner, last 6 months, n (%)     0.28
  0–5 male partners 7 (8.24) 5 (9.62) 2 (6.06)  
  6–10 male partners 14 (16.47) 11 (21.15) 3 (9.09)  
  > 10 male partners 64 (75.29) 36 (69.23) 28 (84.85)  
 Receptive CAS, last 6 months, n (%)     0.88
  0 22 (25.58) 13 (25.00) 9 (26.47)  
  1 or more times 64 (74.22) 39 (75.00) 25 (73.53)  
 HIV-positive male partner, last 6 months, n (%)     0.25
  < 1 positive partner 35 (40.70) 23 (44.23) 12 (35.29)  
  1 positive partner 15 (17.44) 11 (21.15) 4 (11.76)  
  > 1 positive partner 36 (41.86) 18 (34.62) 18 (52.94)  
 Insertive CAS, last 6 months, n (%)     0.06
  0–4 times 67 (77.91) 44 (84.62) 23 (67.65)  
  5 or times 19 (22.09) 8 (15.38) 11 (32.35)  
Syndemic-related factors
 Syndemic Count, Median (IQR) 1 (1–2) 1 (0–3) 1 (1–2) 0.84
 Depressive Symptoms, last week, n (%) 34 (39.53) 22 (42.31) 12 (35.29) 0.51
 Alcohol related problem, n (%) 34 (39.53) 22 (42.31) 12 (35.29) 0.51
 Multiple Drug Use, last 3 months, n (%) 27 (31.40) 13 (25.00) 14 (41.18) 0.11
 Sexual compulsivity, n (%) 27 (31.40) 18 (34.62) 9 (26.47) 0.43
  1. PrEP pre-exposure prophylaxis, NANot applicable, CAS condomless anal sex, HIRI-MSM HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have sex with men, IQR Interquartile range
  2. aChi-sq test/Exact test p-values for categorical variables; Wilcoxon rank-sum test p-values for continuous variables
  3. bEast Asian (10.5%), Unidentified (5.8%), Arab/Middle Eastern (4.7%), Black (3.5%), Mixed Race (2.3%), South Asian (1.2%)