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Table 2 Association of biological, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics with measles in case parishes during the 2011–2012 measles outbreak in Ecuador

From: Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data

  OR (95%CI)a OR (95%CI)b
Biological
 Children under 1 year of age (% population)
   < 3 1.00 1.00b
   ≥ 3 2.64 (1.14–6.14) 2.50 (0.99–6.34)
  P value 0.024 0.053
Socioeconomic
 Head-of-household educational attainment (years)
   ≥ 8 1.00 1.00 b
   < 8 0.18 (0.10–0.31) 0.29 (0.15–0.57)
  P value <  0.001 <  0.001
 Quartiles of the number of internal migrants
   < 81 1.00 1.00b
  81–198 1.16 (0.41–3.24) 1.07 (0.38–3.05)
  199–587 1.75 (0.68–4.52) 1.44 (0.53–3.87)
   ≥ 588 3.88 (1.64–9.15) 2.56 (0.96–6.85)
  P value 0.002 0.161
Environmental
 Percent indigenous population
   < 1.4 1.00 1.00b
   ≥ 1.4 3.97 (2.01–7.81) 3.29 (1.63–6.68)
  P value <  0.001 0.001
 Parish setting
  Rural 1.00 1.00c
  Urban 3.10 (1.76–5.48) 1.77 (0.84–3.76)
  P value <  0.001 0.135
 Crowding (%)
   < 14 1.00 1.00d
  14–20 0.29 (0.13–0.66) 0.34 (0.15–0.80)
  21–26 0.31 (0.13–0.72) 0.49 (0.19–1.21)
   ≥ 27 0.44 (0.21–0.90) 0.46 (0.17–1.24)
  P value 0.003 0.060
  1. aNon-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI)
  2. bOdds ratio adjusted for children under 1 year of age, educational attainment of head of household, internal migration, and % indigenous population
  3. cOdds ratio adjusted for the variables listed in b plus crowding
  4. dOdds ratio adjusted for the variables listed in b plus parish setting
  5. Please see footnote of Table 1 for variables definitions