Skip to main content

Table 1 Biological, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics, and access to health care services in case and control parishes in Ecuador[n (%) or mean ± SD]

From: Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data

Characteristics Case-Parishes Control- Parishes P value
Biological
 Children under 1 year of age (% parish population)
   < 3 45 (86.5) 918 (94.4) 0.019
   ≥ 3 7 (13.5) 54 (5.6)  
Socioeconomic
 Educational attainment of head of household (years)
   ≥ 8 28 (53.8) 166 (17.1)  
   < 8 24 (46.2) 806 (82.9) <  0.001
 Quartiles of the number of internal migrants
   < 81 7 (13.5) 250 (25.7) 0.001
  81–198 8 (15.4) 247 (25.4)  
  199–587 12 (23.1) 245 (25.2)  
   ≥ 588 25 (48.0) 230 (23.7)  
 Percent indigenous population
   < 1.4 11 (21.2) 501 (51.5) <  0.001
   ≥ 1.4 41 (78.8) 471 (48.5)  
Environmental
 Parish setting
  Rural 29 (55.8) 774 (79.6) <  0.001
  Urban 23 (44.2) 198 (20.4)  
 Crowding (%)
   < 14 26 (50.0) 250 (25.7) 0.002
  14–20 8 (15.4) 261 (26.9)  
  21–26 7 (13.5) 219 (22.5)  
   ≥ 27 11 (21.1) 242 (24.9)  
Access to health care services
 Rate of prior measles immunization 79.90 ± 18.20 88.06 ± 12.06 0.02
 Rate of pregnant women attending antenatal care visita 83.90 ± 27.73 94.38 ± 41.14 <  0.001
  1. aPercentage of pregnant women attending at least one pre-natal care visit were calculated using as the denominator the number of life births in the parish
  2. Quantitative variables are shown categorized. Median was used to categorize: Children under 1 year of age, Educational attainment of head of household and Percent indigenous population. Quartiles were used for: Number of internal migrants and Crowding