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Table 5 Fully adjusted associations between infectious burden, individual infections and metabolic risk factors

From: Ethnic differences in infectious burden and the association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis

Infections Diabetesa Elevated cholesterolb Hypertensionc
  OR (95%-CI) OR (95%-CI) OR (95%-CI)
IB
- High 2.14 (1.05–4.36) 1.39 (0.82–2.34) 1.49 (0.88–2.51)
- Intermediate 1.41 (0.71–2.78) 1.39 (0.87–2.23) 1.28 (0.80–2.04)
- Low Reference Reference Reference
HSV1 1.30 (0.61–2.75) 0.72 (0.45–1.15) 1.05 (0.68–1.63)
HSV2 1.88 (1.19–2.96) 1.85 (1.25–2.72) 1.39 (0.95–2.05)
HAV 1.10 (0.54–2.23) 1.12 (0.70–1.79) 0.81 (0.53–1.25)
HBV 1.19 (0.76–1.85) 0.83 (0.56–1.22) 1.30 (0.88–1.91)
HCVd
H.pylori 1.52 (0.71–3.27) 1.20 (0.74–1.92) 1.05 (0.68–1.63)
  1. Bold = significantly different from the reference category within the specific model, Fully adjusted = adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education level, physical activity and BMI; IB infectious burden measured by the number of infections (HSV1, HSV2, HAV, HBV, HCV and H.pylori) a participant was seropositive for. With the term infection we in this study refer to antibody seropositivity, a measure reflecting current or past infection. The subcategories are: low (0–2 infections), intermediate (3 infections) and high (4–6 infections), HSV1 herpes simplex virus 1, HSV2 herpes simplex virus 2, HAV hepatitis virus A, HBV hepatitis virus B, HCV hepatitis virus C, H.pylori Helicobacter pylori, a Diabetes was measured by self-report and/or glucose > 11.0 mmol/L and/or HbA1c > 6.5%, b Elevated cholesterol was measured by self-report and/or total/HDL-cholesterol ≥5 mmol/L, c Hypertension was measured by self-report and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or SBP ≥ 140 mmHg; d: Logistic regression was not performed, due to low amount of HCV positive participants