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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Ethnic differences in infectious burden and the association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional analysis

  Dutch (n = 440) Turkish (n = 320) Moroccan (n = 272) P value
Male 181 (41.1) 151 (47.2) 158 (58.1) < 0.001
Mean age in years 51.5 ± 14.8 45.2 ± 13.2 49.7 ± 13.9 < 0.001
Low education level a 77 (17.7) 193 (62.3) 177 (66.8) < 0.001
Born in the Netherlands 428 (97.3) 13 (4.8) 13 (4.1) < 0.001
Current cigarette smoking 141 (32.2) 105 (36.1) 40 (15.2) < 0.001
Alcohol abstinence 40 (10.2) 211 (81.8) 198 (92.5) < 0.001
Physically active > = 30 min on 5 days 306 (69.5) 138(43.1) 145 (53.3) < 0.001
Mean body mass index in kg/m2 25.8 ± 4.5 28.9 ± 5.3 27.8 ± 5.3 < 0.001
Diabetes b 35 (8.0) 62 (19.4) 71 (26.3) < 0.001
-Median non-fasting blood glucose in mmol/L 4.9 (4.6–5.5) 5.1 (4.6–6.0) 5.5 (4.9–6.9) < 0.001
-Median glycated hemoglobin in % 5.5 (5.3–5.8) 5.6 (5.3–5.9) 5.7 (5.4–9.1) < 0.001
Elevated Cholesterol c 106 (24.1) 122 (38.4) 81 (30.1) < 0.001
-Median high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in mmol/L 1.5 (1.3–1.8) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) < 0.001
-Mean total cholesterol in mmol/L 5.6 ± 1.1 5.2 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 1.0 < 0.001
Hypertension d 223 (50.8) 130 (41.0) 108 (39.7) 0.001
-Mean systolic blood pressure in mmHg 137.8 ± 23.5 129.7 ± 22.1 133.2 ± 21.4 < 0.001
-Mean diastolic blood pressure in mmHg 82.8 ± 11.6 81.6 ± 11.2 79.7 ± 10.4 0.001
  1. Data are given as n (%), mean ± sd or median (interquartile range); With the exception of low education level (n = 21), current cigarette smoking (n = 39), body mass index (n = 12) and alcohol abstinence (n = 166), eight or fewer participants had missing values for the specified variables; P-values for the differences between ethnic groups; a Low education level was measured as up to and including secondary school; b Diabetes was measured by self-report and/or glucose > 11.0 mmol/L and/or HbA1c > 6.5%; c Elevated cholesterol was measured by self-report and/or total/HDL-cholesterol ≥5 mmol/L; d Hypertension was measured by self-report and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg or SBP ≥140 mmHg