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Table 4 Water Insecurity among n = 422 Women’s Development Army leaders and members, rural Amhara, 2015

From: Volunteers in Ethiopia’s women’s development army are more deprived and distressed than their neighbors: cross-sectional survey data from rural Ethiopia

  1–30 Leaders (n = 73) 1–5 Leaders (n = 142) 1–5 Members (n = 207) P-values
Drank water that might not be safe 43.8 40.8 38.6 0.496
Did not collect because it takes too long to queue 41.1 38 33.3 0.344
Slept very few hours due to early morning water collection 35.6 32.4 29 0.379
Worried about not having enough water for all household needs 34.2 29.6 34.8 0.794
Did not complete chores/work due to water collection 30.1 28.2 24.2 0.444
Borrowed water from a neighbor due to lack at home 28.8 29.6 24.2 0.673
Reduced water for drinking 27.4 28.9 26.6 0.985
Did not collect water because source was too far 26 23.2 27.5 0.996
Reduced water for cooking 21.9 19 18.8 0.555
Reduced water for bathing 21.9 16.9 21.3 0.636
Reduced water for making coffee/tella 19.2 16.2 17.4 0.641
Reduced water for washing clothes 19.2 16.9 20.3 0.958
Did not cook a desirable food due to lack of water 17.8 14.1 15.9 0.575
Did not collect because it was too dangerous/risky to go 17.8 17.6 11.1 0.370
Reduced water for washing utensils 13.7 14.1 19.8 0.432
Did not collect because there was not enough water at source 13.7 15.5 16.4 0.616
Reduced water for washing face, hands, and/or feet 12.3 11.3 15.5 0.746
Reduced water for cleaning house 11 10.6 13 0.796
Collected water from a dirty or undesirable source 11 9.9 11.6 0.986
Went to sleep thirsty 11 11.3 11.6 0.902
Quarreled with a neighbor or other person over water 5.5 4.2 4.3 0.755a
Went whole day without drinking water 5.5 2.8 5.8 0.762a
Water Insecurity score, mean (range) 4.7 (0–21) 4.3 (0–20) 4.4 (0–22) 0.661
  1. aFisher’s exact test