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Table 4 Relationships between variables of cooking oil fume exposure and pulmonary function (absolute FEV1 level and FEV1/FVC (%)) in multiple linear regression models

From: Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study

Variables    Adjusted analysis*   Adjusted analysis*
  N FEV1 (L)
(mean ± SD)
β (SE) p-value FEV1/FVC (%)
(mean ± SD)
β (SE) p-value
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 187 1.57 ± 0.44 1 87.24 ± 13.00 1
 Second-hand smoker 450 1.57 ± 0.47 −0.054 (0.033) 0.108 81.73 ± 15.05 −5.71 (1.27) < 0.0001
Cooked in the kitchen
 No 39 1.70 ± 0.46 1 88.15 ± 11.97 1
 Yes 598 1.56 ± 0.46 −0.07 (0.06) 0.270 83.03 ± 14.80 −4.84 (2.45) 0.048
Excluding no cook
Age stared cooking
  > 22 years 278 1.58 ± 0.46 1 82.03 ± 14.56 1
  ≤ 22 years 320 1.55 ± 0.45 0.029 (0.032) 0.374 83.90 ± 14.98 1.46 (1.23) 0.235
Meals per week
 1–13 145 1.69 ± 0.47 1 84.98 ± 14.08 1
 14–20 192 1.58 ± 0.43 −0.027 (0.042) 0.525 84.81 ± 12.84 0.15 (1.61) 0.927
 21–31 261 1.47 ± 0.46 −0.065 (0.041) 0.111 80.64 ± 16.19 −3.35 (1.55) 0.031
Fuel used for cooking
 Gas/electric stove 354 1.69 ± 0.44 1 83.46 ± 13.17 1
 Biomass fuels 147 1.38 ± 0.41 −0.036 (0.044) 0.414 82.56 ± 16.19 1.18 (1.70) 0.487
 Coal 96 1.34 ± 0.42 −0.103 (0.048) 0.034 82.06 ± 18.06 0.60 (1.86) 0.746
Windows in the home kitchen
 No 38 1.59 ± 0.57 1 81.68 ± 16.11 1
 ≥ 1 546 1.56 ± 0.45 − 0.122 (0.064) 0.056 83.27 ± 14.75 0.75 (2.46) 0.760
Ventilation in the home kitchen
 Poor 29 1.42 ± 0.51 1 76.28 ± 16.45 1
 Good 566 1.57 ± 0.46 0.103 (0.073) 0.156 83.41 ± 14.67 5.89 (2.77) 0.034
Installed fume extractor
 No 271 1.41 ± 0.42 1 81.91 ± 15.90 1
 Yes 316 1.69 ± 0.45 0.041 (0.037) 0.261 83.89 ± 13.87 0.43 (1.41) 0.759
Eye irritation during cooking
 No 515 1.59 ± 0.45 1 82.92 ± 14.43 1
 Yes 23 1.32 ± 0.62 −0.158 (0.082) 0.055 76.15 ± 22.16 −5.34 (3.12) 0.088
Smokiness during cooking
 No 493 1.59 ± 0.44 1 83.33 ± 13.96 1
 Yes 46 1.41 ± 0.57 −0.137 (0.059) 0.021 75.07 ± 21.08 −7.67 (2.24) 0.001
  1. *Adjusting for age, height, second-hand smoking status, education level, burning incense and tea consumption
  2. Trend test from 1 to 13, 14–20, to 21–31 meals per week in FEV1: p = 0.100; in FEV1/FVE(%): p = 0.016
  3. Trend test from gas/electric stove, biomass fuels, to coal in FEV1: p = 0.037