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Table 3 Relationships between variables of cooking oil fume exposure and the severity of COPD according to GOLD criteria (N = 632)

From: Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study

Variables No COPD (N = 336) Mild COPD (N = 223) Moderate COPD (N = 73)
N (%) N (%) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)* N (%) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)*
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 108 (32.1) 66 (29.6) 1 1 11 (15.1) 1 1
 Second-hand smoker 228 (67.9) 157 (70.4) 1.13 (0.78–1.63) 1.03 (0.70–1.52) 62 (84.9) 2.67 (1.35–5.27) 2.98 (1.47–6.01)
Cooked in the kitchen
 No 24 (7.1) 12 (5.4) 1 1 2 (2.7) 1 1
 Daily 312 (92.9) 211 (94.6) 1.35 (0.66–2.76) 1.07 (0.51–2.27) 71 (97.3) 2.73 (0.63–11.82) 2.04 (0.46–9.18)
Excluding no cook
Age stared cooking
  > 22 years 139 (44.6) 104 (49.3) 1 1 33 (46.5) 1 1
  ≤ 22 years 173 (55.5) 107 (50.7) 0.83 (0.58–1.17) 0.69 (0.47–1.00) 38 (53.5) 0.93 (0.55–1.55) 0.87 (0.49–1.52)
Meals per weeka
 1–13 85 (27.2) 45 (21.3) 1 1 13 (18.3) 1 1
 14–20 100 (32.1) 76 (36.0) 1.44 (0.90–2.29) 1.39 (0.86–2.25) 15 (21.1) 0.98 (0.44–2.18) 0.85 (0.37–1.94)
 21–31 127 (40.7) 90 (42.7) 1.34 (0.85–2.10) 1.23 (0.77–1.98) 43 (60.6) 2.21 (1.12–4.36) 1.63 (0.80–3.33)
Fuel used for cookingb
 Gas/electric stove 194 (62.4) 125 (59.2) 1 1 33 (46.5) 1 1
 Biomass fuels 74 (23.8) 52 (24.6) 1.09 (0.72–1.66) 0.89 (0.54–1.49) 21 (29.6) 1.67 (0.91–3.07) 0.87 (0.41–1.85)
 Coal 43 (13.8) 34 (16.1) 1.23 (0.74–2.03) 1.12 (0.64–1.98) 17 (23.9) 2.32 (1.19–4.55) 1.36 (0.63–2.97)
Windows in the home kitchenc
 No 22 (7.2) 12 (5.9) 1 1 4 (5.7) 1 1
 ≥ 1 285 (92.8) 192 (94.1) 1.24 (0.60–2.56) 1.31 (0.62–2.77) 66 (94.3) 1.27 (0.43–3.82) 1.67 (0.54–5.20)
Ventilation in the home kitchend
 Poor 14 (4.5) 8 (3.8) 1 1 7 (9.9) 1 1
 Good 297 (95.5) 201 (96.2) 1.18 (0.49–2.88) 1.18 (0.48–2.94) 64 (91.0) 0.43 (0.17–1.11) 0.49 (0.19–1.30)
Installed fume extractore
 No 131 (42.7) 99 (48.3) 1 1 39 (54.9) 1 1
 Yes 176 (57.3) 106 (51.7) 0.80 (0.56–1.14) 0.85 (0.55–1.29) 32 (45.1) 0.61 (0.36–1.03) 1.01 (0.55–1.86)
Eye irritation during cookingf
 No 277 (97.5) 174 (93.6) 1 1 60 (93.8) 1 1
 Yes 7 (2.5) 12 (6.5) 2.73 (1.05–7.06) 3.02 (1.14–8.00) 4 (6.3) 2.64 (0.75–9.30) 1.96 (0.54–7.17)
Smokiness during cookingg
 No 267 (93.7) 171 (91.9) 1 1 52 (81.3) 1 1
 Yes 18 (6.3) 15 (8.1) 1.30 (0.64–2.65) 1.22 (0.59–2.53) 12 (18.8) 3.42 (1.56–7.53) 2.89 (1.28–6.55)
  1. AOR adjusted OR, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, COR crude OR, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, OR odds ratio
  2. *Adjusting for age, second hand smoke status, height, education level, burning incense and tea consumption
  3. aMissing data, n = 10 (0,10,0). bMissing data, n = 11 (1,10,0). cMissing data, n = 13 (5,7,1). dMissing data, n = 3 (1,2,0). eMissing data, n = 11 (5,6,0). fMissing data, n = 60 (28,25,7). gMissing data, n = 59 (27,25,7)