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Table 1 Participant characteristics and pulmonary function test results of 644 non-smoking women categorized by physician diagnosed and ATS criteria

From: Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study

Variables Definite chronic bronchitis (N = 53) Probably chronic bronchitis (N = 285) No pulmonary disease (N = 306) p-value
Mean ± SD or N (%)
 Age (yrs) 61.9 ± 9.4 63.3 ± 8.8 63.3 ± 9.2 0.558
 Height (cm) 155.1 ± 6.1 155.6 ± 5.7 155.1 ± 5.4 0.494
 Weight (kg) 57.3 ± 13.0 58.6 ± 8.6 59.1 ± 8.6 0.392
 BMI 23.8 ± 5.4 24.2 ± 3.3 24.6 ± 3.4 0.216
Pulmonary function test
 FEV1 (L)a 1.47 ± 0.45 1.53 ± 0.44 1.62 ± 0.47 0.012
 FVC (L)a 1.85 ± 0.55 1.91 ± 0.55 1.92 ± 0.58 0.720
 FEV1/FVC (%)a 80.5 ± 13.5 81.0 ± 14.7 86.0 ± 14.4 <  0.0001
Education levelsb
 ≥ junior high school 10 (18.9) 52 (18.3) 44 (14.4) 0.343
 primary school 25 (47.2) 138 (48.4) 172 (56.4)  
 illiteracy 18 (34.0) 95 (33.3) 89 (29.2)  
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 4 (7.6) 79 (27.7) 106 (34.6) 0.0002
 Second-hand smoker 49 (92.5) 206 (72.3) 200 (65.4)  
Tea consumption
 No 50 (94.3) 241 (84.6) 236 (77.1) 0.003
 Yes 3 (5.7) 44 (15.4) 70 (22.9)  
Burning incense
 No 15 (28.3) 112 (39.3) 120 (39.2) 0.291
 Yes 38 (71.7) 173 (60.7) 186 (60.8)  
  1. ATS American Thoracic Society; BMI body mass index; FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1st second; FVC forced vital capacity; SD standard deviation
  2. aMissing data = 7 (3, 3, 1)
  3. bMissing data = 1 (0, 0, 1)