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Table 1 Relative risk, exposure prevalence for PAF, PIF and estimated cases of non-EBF due to the exposures in Nigeria, 1999–2013

From: Population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

Exposure   Cases /Total cases Non-cases (controls)/Total controls Relative Risk (95% CI) Exposure Prevalence (a) (95% CI) Estimated prevalence following intervention (a) (95% CI)
Maternal education Secondary and above education 1669/5891 597/1087 1.00 54.9 (51.9–57.9) 54.9 (51.9–57.9)
Primary education 1192/5891 237/1087 1.32 (1.08–1.61) 21.8 (19.4–24.4) 22.9 (20.4–25.5)
No education 3030/5891 253/1087 1.96 (1.56–2.47) 23.3 (20.8–25.9) 22.2 (19.7–24.8)
Household wealth Rich 980/5891 336/1087 1.00 32.2 (29.4–35.1) 32.2 (29.4–35.1)
Middle 2364/5891 462/1087 1.30 (1.07–1.58) 44.2 (41.2–47.3) 44.2 (41.2–47.3)
Poor 2366/5891 246/1087 1.79 (1.42–2.27) 23.6 (21.0–26.3) 23.6 (21.0–26.3)
Antenatal care visits 4+ 2515/5891 711/1087 1.00 65.4 (62.6–68.3) 73.9 (71.2–76.5)
1–3 846/5891 133/1087 1.11 (0.89–1.39) 12.2 (10.4–14.3) 20.7 (18.3–23.3)
None 2522/5891 243/1087 1.42 (1.16–1.73) 22.4 (19.9–25.0) 5.3 (4.1–6.8)
Place of delivery Health facility 1902/5891 649/1087 1.00 59.7 (56.7–62.6) 65.8 (62.9–68.6)
Home 3987/5891 438/1087 1.59 (1.33–1.90) 40.3 (37.4–43.3) 34.2 (31.4–37.1)
Delivery assistance Health professionals 1876/5891 630/1087 1.00 58.0 (55.0–60.9) 64.2 (61.3–67.1)
Traditional birth attendants 1325/5891 114/1087 1.95 (1.42–2.67) 10.4 (8.7–12.5) 8.9 (7.3–10.8)
Untrained personnel 2687/5891 344/1087 1.32 (1.03–1.69) 31.6 (28.9–34.5) 27.0 (24.3–29.7)
  1. Cases: cases of non-EBF; non-cases (control): cases of EBF
  2. (a) Proportion is percent of exposed non-cases, an estimate of the exposure in the population. That is, non-cases as a proportion of total non-cases
  3. PAF: Population attributable fraction; PIF: Potential impact fraction
  4. For the calculation of the PIF: assumption of continued improvements in high-school completion rates in women [39] was made; impact fractions for maternal education were estimated assuming a 5% relative decrease in the proportion of women not completing high school from 23% to 22%. For antenatal visits, impact fractions were estimated assuming a reduction of 17% in women having no antenatal care (from 22% to 5%) [31, 32]. For delivery assistance and place of delivery, impact fractions were estimated assuming a relative reduction of 15% based on community-based interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practice [31]. No alternative scenario was defined for household wealth because of a lack of data relating to interventions resulting in income re-distribution