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Table 5 Predictors of behavioural CVD risk factors

From: Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries

Variable Overweight or obesity vs. normal weight Low physical activity Tobacco use Binge drinking Not avoiding fat and cholesterol
AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Gender
 Female 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 Male 1.68 (1.49–1.90)*** 0.57 (0.51–0.63)*** 3.17 (2.49–4.03)*** 2.18 (1.80–2.64)*** 1.20 (1.08–1.33)***
Age
 18–20 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 20–21 0.90 (0.78–1.05) 1.02 (0.91–1.15) 0.72 (0.53–0.98)* 1.52 (1.18–1.97)*** 0.89 (0.79–1.00)*
 22–30 1.07 (0.92–1.26) 1.01 (0.89–1.15) 1.34 (1.00–1.80* 2.22 1.72–2.88)*** 1.15 (1.01–1.32)*
Family wealth
 Poor 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 Wealthy 1.26 (1.10–1.43)*** 1.22 (1.10–1.36) 1.69 (1.31–2.17)*** 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 1.04 (0.93–1.15)
Country income
 Upper middle/high 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 Lower middle 0.91 (0.79–1.03) 1.03 (0.93–1.15) 1.55 (1.20–2.00)** 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.56 (1.40–1.74)***
Residence
 Away from parents 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference) 1 (Reference)
 With parents 0.99 (0.86–1.13) 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 1.12 (0.87–1.43) 0.91 (0.76–1.12) 1.00 (0.90–1.12)
Negative subjective health
status (scale) 0.94 (0.87–1.00 1.12 (1.06–1.18)*** 0.97 (0.86–1.09) 1.17 (1.05–1.27)* 1.08 (1.02–1.14)**
Risk awareness (scale) 0.99 (0.89–1.09)a 0.97 (0.91–1.03)b 0.88 (0.77–1.00)*c 0.79 (0.70–0.90)***d 1.03 (0.95–1.11)e
Benefits (scale) 0.97 (0.94–0.97)*A 0.90 (0.89–0.92)***B 0.79 (0.77–0.81)***C 0.83 (0.80–0.85)***D 0.84 (0.82–0.85)***E
  1. AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, * < 0.05
  2. a being overweight, b exercise, c smoking, d alcohol, e eating fat
  3. A keep body weight within normal range, B take regular exercise, C non-smoking, D not drinking too much alcohol, E not to eat too much animal fat