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Table 1 Enablers and barriers to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) use

From: Designing a behavioral intervention using the COM-B model and the theoretical domains framework to promote gas stove use in rural Guatemala: a formative research study

  Enabler Barrier Enabler or barrier
Free gathered wood   X  
Affordable wood delivered to home   X  
Shame of being different than neighbors if own new stove   X  
Worried neighbors will envy them if own new stove   X  
Plancha stove meets most cooking demands   X  
Plancha heats the room, providing warmth   X  
Older women are accustomed to using the plancha and afraid of gas   X  
Older women are afraid of gas   X  
Inorganic refuse needs to be burned in outdoor open fires   X  
Animal food needs long cooking times over open fire to not “waste gas”   X  
Difficult to access gas tank refills   X  
Explosion danger from gas stove   X  
Newly married women are financially constrained   X  
Younger women are not the decision-makers in the household   X  
Uncured or wet wood during rainy season is smoky X   
During cold weather windows are closed, increasing smoke X   
Burn danger to child if near open fire X   
Knowledge about climate change X   
Knowledge about health impacts of breathing smoke X   
Clean kitchens, cooking pots and clothes X   
Young women want to be “modern” and use gas stoves X   
Cost of wood versus gas fuel is unknown    X
Men provide money for stove repair costs    X
Men are in charge of constructing doors/windows/kitchens    X
Smoldering fire is bothersome, but people learn to adapt    X