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Table 5 Factors associated with stunting at 12–24 months of age- results from unadjusted and adjusted GEE modelsa

From: Risk factors of stunting among children living in an urban slum of Bangladesh: findings of a prospective cohort study

Predictors Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Inherent factors
Age
 24 months 1.76 (1.38, 2.25) 0.000 2.34 (1.56, 3.52) 0.000
 18 months 1.71 (1.36, 2.16) 0.000 2.13 (1.55, 2.92) 0.000
 12 months Ref    
Sex
 Male 1.32 (0.83, 2.10) 0.244 1.75 (1.04, 2.95) 0.036
 Female Ref    
Proximal factors
 DEBF 1.002 (0.99, 1.01) 0.339 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.946
 ADD 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 0.844 1.01 (0.99, 1.04) 0.339
 DDS 1.09 (0.94, 1.26) 0.248 0.93 (0.74,1.16) 0.505
 Proportion of calorie from CHO 0.99 (0.98, 1.01) 0.433 0.99 (0.97, 1.02) 0.737
 Proportion of calorie from Protein 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 0.852 0.99 (0.91, 1.09) 0.948
Intermediate factors
 Maternal age 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 0.861 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 0.802
 LAZ at birth 0.41 (0.31, 0.54) 0.000 0.40 (0.26, 0.61) 0.000
 WAZ at birth 0.51 (0.39, 0.66) 0.000 1.05 (0.68, 1.63) 0.814
Presence of improved toilet
 Yes 0.99 (0.54, 1.82) 0.977 0.83 (0.38, 1.82) 0.642
 No Ref    
Water source
 Piped to dwelling 2.18 (1.15, 4.12) 0.017 1.42 (0.73, 2.77) 0.304
 Piped to plot Ref    
Distal factors
Maternal education
  > 5 years 0.64 (0.32, 1.27) 0.202 0.72 (0.31, 1.65) 0.432
  ≤ 5 years 0.79 (0.41, 1.52) 0.479 0.84 (0.40, 1.75) 0.642
 No schooling Ref    
Household asset
 Wealthy 1.55 (0.78, 3.08) 0.213 1.84 (0.93, 3.65) 0.080
 Poor 2.95 (1.49, 5.82) 0.002 2.81 (1.43, 5.52) 0.003
 Intermediate Ref    
  1. OR Odds ratio
  2. CI Confidence interval
  3. DEBF Total days of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life
  4. ADD Average number of days suffered from diarrhoea/month
  5. DDS Dietary diversity score
  6. LAZ at birth Length for age Z-score at birth
  7. WAZ at birth Weight for age Z-score at birth
  8. aGEE models were constructed using unstructured correlation matrix with robust estimator. Included repeated observation from 9 to 12, 15–18 and 21–24 months of age and reported as average at 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Outcome variable- Stunting (LAZ < -2SD) as binary outcome between 12 and 24 months of age. Predictor variables are selected according to inherent, proximal, intermediate and distal factors associated with stunting, significant predictors in adjusted model are highlighted in bold