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Table 3 Socio-demographic and sexual practices associated with HIV infection

From: Socio-demographic and sexual practices associated with HIV infection in Kenyan injection and non-injection drug users

Characteristic Non-DU Non-IDU IDU
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Education
 Secondary or college Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Primary or none 1.042 (0.520-2.089) 0.907 1.710 (0.512-5.711) 0.383 1.499 (0.647-3.475) 0.345
Marital status
 Married Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Never married (single) 0.140 (0.030-0.649) 0.012 0. 926 (0.135-6.336) 0.938 0.827 (0.290-2.360) 0.723
 Divorced, separated or widowed 1.804 (0.810-4.016) 0.149 6.315 (1.334-29.898) 0.020 2.768 (0.888-8.633) 0.079
Religion
 Catholic Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Protestant 0.715 (0.256-2.000) 0.523 1.216 (0.312-4.734) 0.778 1.230 (0.365-4.146) 0.738
 Muslim 1.858 (0.749-4.610) 0.182 1.753 (0.426-7.221) 0.437 0.866 (0.343-2.183) 0.760
Occupationa
 CSW   0.992 (0.932-1.057) 0.806 1.443 (0.471-4.424) 0.521
 Entertainment or beauty therapy 1.483 (0.309-7.118) 0.622 2.351 (0.325-17.002) 0.397 2.790 (0.699-11.138) 0.146
 Transport 0.838 (0.263-2.667) 0.764 1.305 (0.328-5.201) 0.706 1.196 (0.440-3.259) 0.725
 Hospitality 0.718 (0.160-3.233) 0.666 1.414 (0.251-7.962) 0.695 1.285 (0.291-5.683) 0.741
 Small business 0.561 (0.275-1.142) 0.111 0.920 (0.267-3.165) 0.894 2.454 (0.944-6.376) 0.065
 Service 1.241 (0.515-2.993) 0.631 0.467 (0.089-2.466) 0.370 3.352 (0.452-24.820) 0.236
 Unemployed 2.724 (1.049-7.070) 0.040 1.179 (0.202-6.885) 0.855
Income, US$/mos.
  > 172.8 Ref   Ref   Ref  
 57.6-172.8 0.883 (0.361-2.161) 0.785 1.498 (0.318-7.053) 0.609 0.540 (0.213-1.367) 0.193
  < 57.6 0.804 (0.318-2.035) 0.646 2.686 (0.528-13.676) 0.234 0.893 (0.127-6.255) 0.909
Sexual practicesa
 Homosexual or bisexual 2.501 (0.726-8.611) 0.146
 Age of sex debut < 15 years 1.254 (0.539-2.919) 0.599 1.183 (0.325-4.310) 0.799 2.547 (0.965-6.723) 0.059
  > 1 sexual partners 1.261 (0.461-3.392) 0.660 1.116 (0.290-4.292) 0.873 2.021 (0.925-4.415) 0.078
 Unprotected sex 2.134 (0.738-6.168) 0.162 1.053 (0.305-3.636) 0.935 0.772 (0.276-2.160) 0.621
 Sex for police protection 9.526 (1.156-78.528) 0.036
 Sex for drugs 1.159 (0.437-3.073) 0.767
 History of STI 1.838 (0.909-3.717) 0.090 1.407 (0.422-4.694) 0.578 5.117 (1.924-13.485) 0.001
  1. Binary logistic regression was conducted separately for each study group (IDU, non-IDU and non-DU) such that all HIV infected individuals were modeled against all of the HIV negative individuals controlling for age, and gender. Anon-practitioners of the listed occupations or practices were used as the reference category. Data are presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). IDU injection drug users, Non-DU non-drug users, CSW commercial sex worker, STI sexually transmitted infection