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Table 3 Adjusted linear regression of pain intensity (n = 33,955)

From: Reporting of pain by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparative results from the HUNT3 population-based survey

Independent Variables Coefficient SE P-value
Disease group
Arthritis 0.45 0.43 < 0.001
Heart diseases - 0.05 0.05 0.356
Diabetes - 0.35 0.06 < 0.001
No disease - 0.47 0.06 < 0.001
COPD reference
Sex
Men - 0.09 0.02 < 0.001
Women reference
Age, years 0.03 0.004 < 0.001
Age squared - 0.0003 0.00004 < 0.001
Housing
Living with others 0.003 0.02 0.877
Living alone reference   
Occupation
With low educational requirements 0.09 0.02 < 0.001
With high educational requirements reference  
Smoking habits
Smoke daily 0.17 0.02 < 0.001
Previous smoker 0.22 0.02 < 0.001
Smoke occasionally 0.09 0.03 0.002
Never smoke reference  
Exercise
Less than once a week - 0.15 0.04 < 0.001
Once a week - 0.26 0.04 < 0.001
2–3 times a week - 0.31 0.03 < 0.001
Nearly every day - 0.30 0.04 < 0.001
Never reference  
Comorbidity 0.29 0.04 < 0.001
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
HADS anxiety score 0.06 0.003 < 0.001
HADS depression score 0.04 0.004 < 0.001
Constant 1.94 0.13 < 0.001
  1. Note: Regression coefficients are unstandardized and the significance is set at p ≤ 0.05