Skip to main content

Table 2 Adjusted logistic regression of chronic pain in different disease groups (n = 33,955)

From: Reporting of pain by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparative results from the HUNT3 population-based survey

Independent Variables OR CI 95% p-value
Disease group
Arthritis 2.81 2.47 3.20 ≤ 0.001
Heart diseases 1.00 0.87 1.15 0.945
Diabetes 0.74 0.63 0.88 0.001
No disease 0.64 0.52 0.77 ≤ 0.001
COPD reference   
Sex
Men 0.81 0.77 0.86 < 0.001
Female reference
Age, years 1.07 1.05 1.09 < 0.001
Age squared 0.99 0.99 0.99 < 0.001
Housing
Living with others 1.05 0.97 1.13 0.196
Living alone reference    
Occupation
With low educational requirements 1.17 1.10 1.24 < 0.001
With high educational requirements reference   
Smoking habits
Smoke daily 1.30 1.22 1.37 < 0.001
Previous smoker 1.38 1.28 1.49 < 0.001
Smoke occasionally 1.18 1.06 1.32 < 0.001
Never smoke reference   
Exercise
Less than once a week 0.74 0.66 0.83 < 0.001
Once a week 0.64 0.57 0.72 < 0.001
2–3 times a week 0.63 0.56 0.71 < 0.001
Nearly every day 0.63 0.56 0.72 < 0.001
Never reference   
Comorbidity 1.75 1.48 2.07 < 0.001
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
HADS anxiety score 1.08 1.06 1.09 < 0.001
HADS depression score 1.05 1.04 1.06 < 0.001
  1. Significance is set at p ≤ 0.05